A new species, Entoria hei sp. nov, is described and illustrated. Notes on the status of the genus from Hong Kong are given. A key and important figures of the Entoria species of Hong Kong are provided.
The genus Entoria Stål, 1875 consists of 28 species and is one of the most diverse genera of Phasmatidae in the Oriental Region (Otte & Brock 2005; Hennemann et al. 2008; Chen & He 2008; Phasmida Species File online by Brock). Most of the species are described from only one male or one female and need further research. In Hong Kong, a total of five Entoria species are thus far recognized (Brock & Seow-Choen 2000; Bi et al. 2001; Hennemann et al. 2008; Chen & He 2008). However, some of them have been misidentified and a note is provided to clarify their status. This paper also describes a new species, E. hei sp. nov., from Hong Kong. A key and important figures of the Entoria species of Hong Kong are also provided in this study.
Material and methods
The material mentioned in this study are deposited in Natural History Museum, London, England (BMNH), Hong Kong Entomological Society, Hong Kong (HKES), University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (HKU), Institute of Zoology, China Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS), National Taiwan University, Taiwan (NTU), Shanghai Entomological Museum, China Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China (SEM), Tianjin Museum of Natural History, Tianjin, China (TMNH), Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (SYSBM), and private collections of Francis Seow-Choen, Singapore (FSC) and George Ho Wai-Chun, Hong Kong, China (GH). The names of plant species mentioned in this study are given according to “Check List of Hong Kong Plants 2012” compiled by Hong Kong Herbarium (AFCD 2012).
Genus Entoria Stål, 1875
Type-species.—Entoria denticornis Stål, 1875: 72, by subsequent designation of Kirby, 1904: 327.
Notes.—Thirteen species are recognized in mainland China (Hennemann et al. 2008; Chen & He 2008; Ho 2013; Phasmida Species File online by Brock 2012). Only two species are currently known from Hong Kong.
Key to the Entoria of Hong Kong
1. Medio-ventral carina of mesofemora and metafemora with unarmed elevation near base in both sexes; body grey, postero-ventral carina of profemora serrated in female; semi-tergites curved in male Entoria victoria Brock & Seow-Choen, 2000
-. Medio-ventral carina of mesofemora and metafemora with spinose elevation near base in both sexes; body brown or entirely green and postero-ventral carina of profemora not serrated in female; semi-tergites straight in male Entoria hei Ho sp. nov.
Entoria hei Ho sp. nov.
Type-material.—Holotype ♀, Tai Tam, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong, 11.X.2008, Ho Wai-Chun George (HKES); Paratype ♂, Tai Tarn, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong, 11.X.2008, Ho Wai-Chun George (HKES); Paratype ♀, Aberdeen, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong, 6.IX.2009, Ho Wai-Chun George (HKES); Paratype ♂ Po Toi Island, Hong Kong, 18.X.2009, Ho Wai-Chun George (HKES); Paratypes ♂♀ Tai Tarn, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong, 17–18. IX.2009, Ho Wai-Chun George (HKES).
Further material.—♀ Sheung Shui, New Territories, Hong Kong, 9.XI. 1983, coll. Chen Ping-Wing (SEM); ♀, Sheung Shui, New Territories, Hong Kong, 29.XII.1995, coll. Chen Ping-Wing (SEM); 1♂, 2♀♀, no data (HKU).
Diagnosis.—Small Entoria species, similar to E. hainanensis Cai & Liu, 1990 but differs in having a more granulated mesonotum, u-shaped emarginate hind margin of the anal segment, antero and postero-ventral carinae of meso- and metafemora with 3–7 minute spines on the basal elevation, and medio-ventral carina of meso- and metatibiae with spinose elevation basally in female; by larger size, –with two distinct granule-like horns, mesonotum broadly emarginate medially, anal segment longer than 8th tergum and ventral carinae of mesotibiae and metatibiae lacking any spines near apices in male.
Description.—Female (Figs 1–2, 7): Medium-sized. Body slender and long. Inconspicuously granulated. Brown or entirely green. If brown, with irregularly-sized small blackish markings throughout the body and legs. Whole body sparsely covered with short bristles.
Head: Entirely green or brown with blackish markings as other parts of the body. Densely and inconspicuously covered with minute granules. Oval, distinctly longer than wide, gently tapering posteriorly. Eyes buff brown, rounded. With a pair of ear-like lobes between the eyes, thick structurally, apex rounded, near the size of eyes. Antennae short, 26 segments, longer than the combined length of head and pronotum, reaching middle of profemora; the first segment flattened, constricted at base, median carina distinct, 3× length of third segment; second segment cylindrical, distinctly shorter than third segment; apical segment 2× length of the third segment, apices slightly rounded.
Thorax: Colouration as other parts of body. Surface rough. Pronotum with inconspicuous granules, near rectangular, slightly shorter than the head, longitudinal and transverse sulci crossing in the middle; anterior margin strongly curved, posterior margin rounded. Mesonotum elongate, 4× length of pronotum, longer than the combined length of metanotum and median segment, sparsely covered with small granules, denser along lateral margins, also with a row of small pits along the lateral margins. Metanotum as in mesonotum, but less granulated, 4 × length of median segment. Mesosternum and metasternum with sparse and inconspicuous small granules. Mesopleurum and metapleurum with small lateral granules.
Abdomen: Cylindrical, tapering posteriorly. Median segment as long as pronotum. Fifth tergum being the longest segment. The 9th tergum about ½ length of 8th tergum. Seventh sternum with distinct preopercular organ at hind margin, elongate posteriorly, apex obtuse. Anal segment longer than the 9th tergum, but shorter than 8th tergum, hind margin with u-shaped emargination. Supra-anal plate elongate, roughly as long as 8th tergum, apex pointed. Subgenital plate smooth, apex not reaching the end of the supra-anal plate. Ovipositor not exposed. Cerci very short, apices pointed.
Legs: Profemora not serrated beneath, but serrated above, with 13– 16 small serrations. Dorsal carinae of mesofemora and metafemora unarmed. Antero-ventral and postero-ventral carinae of mesofemora and metafemora with a small and indistinct triangular lobe near base, but smooth in the paratype collected from Aberdeen (Hong Kong Island). Medio-ventral carina of mesofemora and metafemora with a spinose elevation near apices, bearing 4–7 minute spines. Postero-dorsal carina of mesotibiae and metatibiae with a small triangular lobe near base. Medio-ventral carina of mesotibiae with one small spine near the apices. Medio-ventral carina of mesotibiae and metatibiae with a spinose elevation near base, bearing 6–10 minute spines.
Male (Figs 3–4, 7): Dull coloration, generally black. Very slender and slim. Distinctly thinner than female.
Head: Light brown, with blackish markings. Densely covered with small and flattened granules, less distinct on vertex. Oval, 1.5 × longer than wide, moderately tapering behind. Vertex with two rounded elevations between eyes and with a pair of very small granule-like horns present behind the elevation. Occiput flat, median and lateral furrows distinct. Eyes yellowish brown, rounded, protruding. Antennae dark brown except the basal two light brown segments, short, not reaching the apices of profemora, 26 segments; the first segment shorter than third segment, flattened, with median carina; 2nd segment about ¼ of the length of the first segment; other segments similar in length.
Thorax: Pronotum light brown, with few granules, gently expanded posteriorly; transverse sulcus short, curved slightly, not reaching lateral margins; anterior margin curved. Mesonotum black with light brown posterior region, very elongate, about 6–7.5× length of pronotum, with very few small granules; constricted at ¼ posteriorly, broadly emarginate medially, widening at ¾ posteriorly. Mesopleurum and metapleurum with small pits. Mesosternum and metasternum light brown. Metanotum black with light brown posterior area, 6 × length of median segment.
Abdomen: Smooth and slender. Median segment completely light brown. Parallel-sided from 2nd to 9th tergites and narrower at the anal segment. Third to 5th tergites slightly equal in length. Ninth tergum shorter than 8th tergum. Anal segment as long as 8th tergum, dilated as two distinct segments; both semi-tergites straight, apices rounded, with setae, inner surfaces with small teeth. Poculum cup-shaped, hind margin rounded, protruding, projecting over the end of 9th tergum. Cerci cylindrical, apices pointed, not projecting behind anal segment.
Legs: Very slender and long. All coxae light brown. All legs rufous brown to blackish brown, darker at apices and with light brown bands. Densely covered with long and black bristles. Profemora curved basally, lacking armature, roughly as long as the combined length of pronotum, mesonotum and metanotum. Protibiae lacking armature. All dorsal carinae of mesofemora, metafemora and mesotibiae lacking armature. Medio-ventral carina of mesofemora and metafemora with 5–7 minute spines near apices. Medio-ventral carina of mesotibiae and metatibiae with 8–12 minute spines near base. Postero-dorsal carina of metatibiae with one short spine near apices in two paratypes both collected from Tai Tam (Hong Kong Island).
Measurements.— (In mm) Holotype ♀, Body length: 115, head: 5, antennae: 11, pronotum: 3.5, mesonotum: 20, metanotum: 13, median segment: 4, profemora: 35, mesofemora: 22, metafemora :27, protibiae: 38, mesotibiae: 21.5, metatibiae: 29. Paratypes ♀, Body length: 98–110, head: 5, antennae: 10–11, pronotum: 3, mesonotum: 17, metanotum: 12, median segment: 3, profemora: 32–33, mesofemora: 21–22, metafemora: 26–27, protibiae: 35–38, mesotibiae: 21–22, metatibiae: 28–29. Paratypes ♂, Body length: 86–96, head: 3-–3.5, antennae: 22–28, pronotum: 2.5–3, mesonotum: 17–19, metanotum: 13–15, median segment: 2.5–3, profemora: 36–38, mesofemora: 24–27, metafemora: 30–32, protibiae: 42–46, mesotibiae: 26–29, metatibiae: 33–37.
Eggs (Figs 5–6 ): The capsule is cylindrical, light brown with irregularsized black markings; rough surface, densely granulate, posteriorpole rounded. Operculum flat, light brown as capsule, central area with a small spot; rim sparsely with sparse hair-like fringes. Micropylar plate spade-shaped, gently tapering anteriorly, posterior margin truncate; central ridge about 1/2 length of the micropylar plate. Median line short, about 1/3 length of the micropylar plate. Micropylar cup distinct, placed at the posterior area of micropylar plate.
Measurements.— (In mm) Length: 6, width: 1.2, height: 1.6. Food-plants.— Eating Uvaria Uvaria macrophylla Roxb. [Annonaceae] and Chinese Lasianthus Lasianthus chinensis (Champ, ex Benth.) Benth. [Rubiaceae] in wild.
Habitats.—Mountainous shrubland and woodland, altitude between 50 and 400 m above sea level.
Distribution.— Restricted to the southern islands (Hong Kong Island and Po Toi Island) of Hong Kong and is probably an endemic species.
Conservation.—This native species has a restricted range and is only known from three localities in Hong Kong. Specimens were not easily observed and are presumably very rare with low density of population in the wild. In two sets of casual observations which were conducted on the second week of October 2008 and the third week of September 2009 respectively, less than 5 pairs of adults were counted along a 5 km walk in Tai Tam (Hong Kong Island). Extra protection and conservation measures should be provided for this species. The type localities, Tai Tam and Aberdeen, are within the boundaries of Tai Tam Country Park and Aberdeen Country Park, limiting any destructive activities and developments to protect the natural environment. The population of this species within the range of the country parks is undoubtedly being protected. However, one of the type localities, Po Toi Island, the southern-most island of Hong Kong, is facing vegetation removal and concrete reclamation, damaging the landscape and diminishing its known ecological value as a crucial refueling stop for migratory birds (more than 300 species of birds have been recorded on the island); and a natural habitat for the endemic Romer's Tree Frog Chirixalus romeri which is internationally endangered. The island also has high value in rock formation and landscape. Extra protection should be provided to the island, for example, designating it as a Country Park to restrain habitat destruction.
Notes.—honorThere is material deposited in HKU and SEM which matches this species, but collection details are doubtful or incomplete. Therefore, those specimens are not selected as the type-material for this new species. The male Entoria hainanensis Cai & Liu, 1990 is undescribed and a paper is in research progress to deal with this species. The description of differentiation between E. hei Ho sp. nov. and E. hainanensis is based on the material deposited in the private collection of the present author.
Etymology.— Named in honour of Prof. He Yun-heng (Beijing) for her contributions to the Chinese Phasmatodea.
Entoria victoria Brock & Seow-Choen, 2000
Entoria victoria, Brock & Seow-Choen, 2000:134, figs. 7–8.
Brock, 2002: 56. [Illustration]
Brock, 2003: 62.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 134.
Chen & He, 2008: 304, fig. 268.
Type-material- Holotype ♀, Peel Rise, Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, China, 10.VII.1996, F. Seow-Choen (BMNH); Paratype ♀, Peel Rise, Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, China, V.1995, F. Seow-Choen (BMNH); Paratypes ♂♀, Peel Rise, Victoria Peak, Hong Kong, China, 10.V1I.1996, F. Seow-Choen (FSC).
Further material.— Nymph Ç, Tai Po Kau, Hong Kong, IV.2007, Ho, G.W.C (GH); 2♀, Tai Po Kau, Hong Kong, 26.IV.2008, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♂, 750m., Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong, 21 .VI.2008, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♀, Lui Ta Shek, Sai Kung, Hong Kong, 25.VI.2008, Ho, G.W.C (GH); 1♂, 2♀, Tai Tung Shan, Hong Kong, 30.VI.2008, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♀, Ng Tung Chai, Hong Kong, 2009, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♀, Kowloon Peak, Hong Kong, 23.IV.2009, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♀, Kowloon Peak, Hong Kong, China, 1.VI.2009, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♀, Black's Link, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong, 5.VI.2009, Ho, G.W.C (GH); 9, Pat Sin Leng, Hong Kong, 18.VI.2009, Ho, G.W.C (GH); ♀, PakTam Au, Sai Kung, Hong Kong, 20.VI.2009, Ho, G.W.C (GH).
Differentiation.— Large Entoria species. This species is similar to E. hei Ho but with the following differences: larger size, robust body and medio-ventral carina of mesofemora, and metafemora with unarmed elevation near base in both sexes; lacking praeopercular organ and serrated postero-ventral carina of profemora in female; and curved semi-tergites in male.
Distribution.— Types from Hong Kong. Not a commonly seen species, but widely distributed in most areas in Hong Kong.
Notes.— This species is currently not recorded outside the range of Hong Kong.
Erroneous records of Entoria spp. from Hong Kong
Entoria formosana Shiraki, 1911
Entoria formosana, Shiraki, 1911: 309, pl. 6: 9.
Shiraki, 1935: 30, 48.
Bi et al., 2001: 254. [Misidentification]
Huang, 2002: 123. [Illustration]
Brock, 2003: 62.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 133.
Chen & He, 2008: 308, figs. 273.
Distribution.— Types from Taiwan.
Entoria hainanensis, Cai & Liu, 1990
Entoria hainanensis, Cai & Liu, 1990: 418, figs. 1, 7–8.
Bi et al., 2001: 254. [Misidentification]
Chen et al., 2002: 108.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 133.
Chen & He, 2008: 306, fig. 269.
Type-material.—Holotype ♀, Haikou, Hainan Province, China, 15.III.1964, Liu Shengli (TMNH).
Further material.— ♀, Hoihow, Kiungshan District, Hainan Islands, China, VIII.1932, William E. Hoffmann (SYSBM); ♀, Lingshui, Hainan Province, China, 24.V.1957, no data (IZCAS); ♂♀, Jianfengling, Hainan Province, China, 6.VI.2008, Ho, G.W.C. (GH).
Distribution.— Type from Hainan, China.
Notes.— Bi et al. (2001: 254) misidentified the new species, Entoria hei Ho sp. nov., as E. hainanensis Cai & Liu, 1990 which is restricted to Hainan and not found in Hong Kong.
Entoria laminata Cai & Liu, 1990
Entoria laminata, Cai & Liu, 1990: 421, figs. 5 & 12.
Bi et al., 2001: 254. [Misidentification]
Otte & Brock, 2005: 133.
Chen & He, 2008: 319, fig. 288.
Type-material- Holotype ♀, Gushan, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, 7.VII.1965, Liu Shengli (TMNH).
Distribution.— Type from Fujian, China.
My profound thanks go to Paul Brock (Natural History Museum, British) for his help in arranging for access to the collection in National Taiwan University, Dr. Francis Seow-Choen (Singapore) for sending requested references and Mr. Graham Reels (England), and Mr. John Lee (Singapore) for his comments and proofreading, which greatly improved the manuscript. Special thanks go to the Institute of Zoology, China Academy of Sciences (IZCAS), National Taiwan University (NTU), Shanghai Entomological Museum (SEM), Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSBM), Tianjin Museum of Natural History (TMNH) and University of Hong Kong (HKU) for giving access to the respective collections. The author must also acknowledge The Orthopterists' Society for their funding support to travel to Taiwan in October 2009.