The earliest known record of lingulid-coral associations is described from Ashgill tabulate corals preserved on Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Lingulid infestation of tabulate corals and stromatoporoids also is locally abundant in Ashgill and Llandovery limestones on Anticosti Island, Québec, and these preserve the new lingulid species Rowellella? anticostiensis inside the cavities of Trypanites borings. In all examples, lingulids appear to nestle in previously formed Trypanites, likely in a dead host coral or stromatoporoid. In some instances in the Silurian of Anticosti, regeneration of host growth while infested by lingulids is evidenced by a new type of compound trace fossil, Klemmatoica linguliforma new ichnogenus and ichnospecies. Similar endosymbiotic relationships previously observed in Silurian corals from Wales and Sweden suggest that the lingulid association with tabulate corals and stromatoporoids was widespread in early Paleozoic shallow marine settings.
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