We describe the first account of the nematode Gyrinicola batrachiensis in the gastrointestinal tracts of tadpoles of Bufo terrestris, Gastrophryne carolinensis, Hyla femoralis, H. squirella, Rana heckscheri, and R. utricularia. Infection by G. batrachiensis was also noted in tadpoles of R. catesbeiana and R. clamitans, species previously described as harboring these nematodes. These observations represent a major expansion of the known geographical range of G. batrachiensis to include the southeastern United States. In our study, female G. batrachiensis nematodes in ranid host species were didelphic, but females in B. terrestris tadpoles were monodelphic. Furthermore, only female nematodes were found in the latter host species. Such variations in nematode uterine morphology and sex ratios among these tadpole host species are in accordance with the apomictic and haplodiploid reproductive strategies previously reported for G. batrachiensis. These observations also support a generalized pattern relating G. batrachiensis reproductive modes and the life cycles of their tadpole hosts.
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