A coelomic myxozoan infection was detected in freshwater polychaetes, Manayunkia speciosa from the Klamath River, Oregon/California, a site enzootic for the myxozoan parasites Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis. The tetractinomyxon type actinospores had a near-spherical spore body 7.9 × 7.1 μm, with 3 spherical, protruding polar capsules, no valve cell processes, and a binucleate sporoplasm. Parvicapsula minibicornis-specific primers Parvi1f and Parvi2r amplified DNA from infected polychaetes in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The small subunit 18S rRNA gene of the spores was sequenced (GenBank DQ231038) and was a 99.7% match with the sequence for P. minibicornis myxospore stage in GenBank (AF201375). Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to a dose of 1,000 actinospores per fish tested PCR positive for P. minibicornis at 14 wk postinfection and presporogonic stages were detected in the kidney tubules by histology at 20 wk. This life cycle is 1 of only about 30 known from more than 1,350 myxozoan species, and only the second known from a freshwater polychaete.
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