We examine the charts of 408 malaria-naïve neurosyphilis patients given malaria therapy at the South Carolina USPHS facility, with daily records encompassing at least 93% of the duration of infection, and focus on the 152 patients infected with the St. Elizabeth strain of Plasmodium vivax, 82 with the McLendon strain of Plasmodium falciparum, 36 with the USPHS strain of Plasmodium malariae, and 15 with the Donaldson strain of Plasmodium ovale in whom gametocytes appeared before drug, or other, intervention. In P. vivax infections, fever and parasitemia were higher after gametocytes were first detected than before; in P. malariae infections, parasitemia was higher. In P. ovale infections, fever and parasitemia were similar before and after. In P. falciparum infections, fever, parasitemia, and fever frequency were lower after gametocytes were first detected than before. Parasitemia and temperature correlated in P. vivax infections, before and after gametocytes were first detected; parasitemia and temperature at first fever were not correlated in infections with any species. Gametocyte density correlated with parasitemia in P. malariae and sporozoite-induced P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. Fevers and detected gametocytemia coincided more often than expected by chance with P. vivax and P. ovale; fever temperature and gametocyte density were not correlated in infections with any species.
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