In the Czech Republic, sera from 720 wild ruminants were examined for antibodies to Neospora caninum by screening competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT); the same sera were also examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by IFAT. Neospora caninum antibodies were found in 14% (11 positive/79 tested) roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 14% (2/14) sika deer (Cervus nippon), 6% (24/ 377) red deer (Cervus elaphus), 1% (2/143) fallow deer (Dama dama), 3% (3/105) mouflon (Ovis musimon), and none of 2 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 50% (7/14) sika deer, 45% (169/377) red deer, 24% (19/79) roe deer, 17% (24/143) fallow deer, 9% (9/105) mouflon, and 1 of 2 reindeer. In 42 samples of wild ruminants that tested positive for N. caninum antibodies, 28 (67% of the positive N. caninum samples) reacted solely to N. caninum. This is the first evidence of N. caninum infection in mouflon, the first N. caninum seroprevalence study in farmed red deer, and the first survey of N. caninum in wild ruminants from the Czech Republic.
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