In this study, we describe 2 new species of Ascarophis van Beneden, 1871 (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), found in fishes from southern Chile. Ascarophis carvajali n. sp. was found in Austrolycus depressiceps and Patagonotothen cornucola, whereas Ascarophis draconi n. sp. was taken from Champsocephalus gunnari. These new Ascarophis species differ from other species in a combination of several morphometric and morphological characteristics. Although A. carvajali n. sp. was morphologically close to Ascarophis minuta, the new species has a larger ratio between glandular and muscular esophagus, filaments on both egg poles, and a shorter right spicule than A. minuta. Ascarophis draconi n. sp. was morphologically similar to Ascarophis adioryx and Ascarophis filiformis. However, A. adioryx has eggs without filaments, a smaller ratio between glandular and muscular esophagus length, and a smaller ratio between left and right spicule lengths in contrast to A. draconi n. sp., whereas A. filiformis has a shorter glandular esophagus and left spicule length than A. draconi n. sp. Only 1 Ascarophis species has been recorded in a single fish from Chile (i.e., Ascarophis sebastodis in Sebastes capensis). Consequently, this study constitutes not only new species and records of Ascarophis in fishes from Chile, but also new records for the Pacific coast of South America.
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