Adults of 3 tick species (Acari: Argasidae) identified as Antricola guglielmonei, Antricola delacruzi, and Carios rondoniensis n. sp. were collected on bat guano in a cave in the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil. Adults of C. rondoniensis possess a unique combination of characters that distinguish them from all described adults in the Argasidae, i.e., a large spiracular plate densely filled with small goblets, a well-developed flap covering the female genital opening, and palpi containing several tufts of long setae on articles 2 and 3. Unlike Ornithodoros or other Carios species, adults of C. rondoniensis have a scooplike hypostome devoid of denticles, as in Antricola spp. Conversely, the presence of a pair of long posthypostomal setae, and a slitlike transverse fissure at the capsule opening of the Haller's organ, are characters of C. rondonensis that are also found in species of Carios and Ornithodoros, but not in Antricola species. Molecular analyses inferred from a portion of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene indicate that C. rondoniensis is phylogenetically closest to species of Carios, followed by species of Antricola, and then Ornithodoros. Because the highest bootstrap value linking C. rondoniensis to Carios spp. was 62%, further phylogenetic studies are needed to better evaluate the taxonomic status of the former species.
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