Columbina picui (picui ground-dove) is a small, diurnal columbid bird that lives, in couples or flocks, in open areas in the countryside and urban centers. The species occurs in Brazil and other countries in South America. The aim of this study was to identify the helminths that parasitize C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Thirty-four specimens were necropsied; in each case, the organs were isolated and examined separately. The nematodes and their prevalences were: Ascaridia columbae (26.5%) and Ornithostrongylus iheringi (11.8%) in the small intestine; Dispharynx nasuta in the proventriculus (5.9%) and gizzard (2.9%); and a Dispharynx sp. (2.9%) in the proventriculus. This is the first report of D. nasuta parasitizing C. picui in Brazil and the first record of A. columbae and O. iheringi infecting C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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