During surveys for wild felids in Nangunhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan province, China, we conducted a wider mammal survey of the core nature reserve area, using camera trapping techniques. Forty motion-triggered digital camera traps had been set in oldest forest tract of protected area to conduct a species inventory. The total camera trapping effort of 2460 camera trap nights yielded 232 digital photographs of mammals represented by 17 species in five orders. The species photographed include rare and elusive species and those that are of high conservation value, such as IUCN endangered species Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus ), and Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypit hecus phayrei ). In addition, IUCN vulnerable species including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus ), sambar (Rusa unicolor ), northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonine ), and marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata ), and more common species were found. All mammals were also listed as key protected wild animals by the State Forestry Administration of China. Of particular importance were the carnivores, with 7 different species recorded. Ungulates and other taxa forming a prey base for these predators,such as rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta ), red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjac ), sambar, wild boar (Sus scrofa ), and Chinese serow (Capricornis milneedwardsii ), were found to be the most frequently photographed and most widespread species. Opportunities for local people to develop standardized monitoring designs for targeted species were identified by these initial assessment results. Local nature reserve staff lacked technical ability to produce standardized survey designs, yet a by product of this type of non-standardized data collection can be very informative and produce inventory information that gives a species richness analysis, as well as initial estimates for occupancy and detection probability for abundant species to drive future standardized survey designs and efforts.
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