Agricultural land provides not only food and fiber (an important element of food security), but also serves as a non-market commodity with characteristic externalities and public services. However, there are also many negative impacts on environment of the paddy production. Thus, Payments for paddy ecosystem services encourage farmers to engage in ecological or organic agricultural practices and agro-ecological/environmental supply. However, compared with forest, wetland, and pasture, the eco-function and ecosystem services of paddy fields have gotten insufficient attention. It is necessary to establish an eco-compensation mechanism for paddy fields that boosts behavior that protects farms to benefit the ecosystem. Based on a review of eco-compensation for paddy fields, this paper proposes the policy game framework of eco-compensation for paddy fields, which is oriented to ecological restoration. Secondly, this paper introduces methods for determination of compensation standards, including the cost the farmers' willingness to accept, and the ecological benefits of adopting environmental friendly farming practices. And finally, this paper puts forward policy recommendations for eco-compensation for paddy ecosystems.
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