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1 November 2018 Identification of Key Ecosystem Services That Can be Delivered by Water or Wind from Zhangjiakou-Chengde Region to Beijing
Li Qingxu, Zhang Biao, Xie Gaodi, Wang Shuang
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Rapid urbanization causing serious air pollution and ecological risks in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region in North China has attracted worldwide attention. This study estimates the key ecosystem services of land covers in Zhangjiakou and Chengde, and analyzes their main contributions and the effects of ecosystem service flows to Beijing. Results indicated that the total economic value of key ecosystem services in the Zhangjiakou–Chengde region was CNY 189.5 billion in 2013, and that these services were generated mainly from the forestlands, grasslands, and farmlands of Chengde and the eastern region of Zhangjiakou. However, nearly half of land covers provided low ecosystem service values and thus should be enhanced. In addition, approximately 21% of key ecosystem services were delivered from the Zhangjiakou–Chengde region into Beijing, and the flow feasibilities of ecosystem services delivered by water and wind reached 34% and 12%, respectively. Chicheng, Zhuolu, Chongli, Huailai, Xuanhua and Guyuan counties contributed 61% of the ecosystem services flowing into Beijing, and each service showed high regional relationships with Beijing (flow index ≥ 40%). Thus, these services should be prioritized in terms of ecological compensation funds and policies from Beijing.

Li Qingxu, Zhang Biao, Xie Gaodi, and Wang Shuang "Identification of Key Ecosystem Services That Can be Delivered by Water or Wind from Zhangjiakou-Chengde Region to Beijing," Journal of Resources and Ecology 9(6), 632-641, (1 November 2018).
Received: 25 January 2018; Accepted: 10 June 2018; Published: 1 November 2018

Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region
key ecosystem service
land cover
supply and flow
Zhangjiakou–Chengde region
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