The protozoans Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus olseni, Bonamia ostreae, Bonamia exitiosa, and Marteilia refringens are responsible for some of the most detrimental diseases in the production of cultivated shellfish worldwide and are classified as notifiable diseases by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). This study examined the general health status of wild and cultured bivalves from southern Brazil and included diagnostic tests for the presence of Perkinsus sp., Bonamia sp., andMarteilia sp. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (syn. Crassostrea brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus, andwing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Themangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. Anomalocardia flexuosa) were collected from wild populations. A variety of parasitic or commensal organisms were detected by histology including Ancistrocoma-like and Spenophrya-like organisms; Bucephalus genus, Nematopsis sp., Steinhausia sp., and Tylocephalum sp.; unidentified trematode; unknown protozoan and metazoans; and an amoeba parasite. Hemocytic infiltration was most commonly associated with parasitized animals. Histological, culture and molecular diagnostic tests did not find any evidence of the presence of OIE-listed pathogens or related species in this study. Although the current survey did not identify any pathogens or diseases of concern, it provides baseline health assessment data for these species against which any future disease developments or significant changes in population health can be compared. These data are also valuable with respect to the development and implementation of public policies related to aquatic animal health.
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Vol. 35 • No. 1