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20 August 2019 Extrinsic Factors and Marine Bivalve Mass Mortalities: An Overview
Tan Kar Soon, Julian Ransangan
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Bivalve aquaculture accounts for 14%–16% of the average per capita animal protein of 1.5 billion people, supporting more than 200,000 livelihoods, mostly in developing countries. Massive mortality outbreaks of various cultured bivalves have been reported worldwide. Repeated episodes of mass mortality not only reduce the production and cause high economic losses but also have a negative impact on natural bivalve populations. The present article reviews the scientific evidence of mass mortality outbreaks of marine bivalve molluscs affected by extrinsic factors. It attempts to summarize the pertinent data published on specific research issues to improve understanding of the diverse factors. This helps to clarify the present state of research and to identify topics for future studies on bivalve mass mortality. It can be seen from the published data that bivalve mass mortality episodes are rarely caused by single factors but are more likely to be triggered by synergistic effects of two or more factors. Understanding these factors could aid in the development of good aquaculture practices and effective fishery management plans for bivalves.

Tan Kar Soon and Julian Ransangan "Extrinsic Factors and Marine Bivalve Mass Mortalities: An Overview," Journal of Shellfish Research 38(2), 223-232, (20 August 2019).
Published: 20 August 2019

extrinsic factors
marine bivalve
mass mortality
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