A single adult female of Anopheles (Anopheles) punctipennis (Say) was collected in a New Jersey light trap in the port area of Honolulu, Oahu, HI, on December 8, 2003. This is the 1st record of a wild-collected, intact Anopheles mosquito, and the 1st detection of An. punctipennis in the Hawaiian Islands. Extensive larval surveillance and additional light trapping in the area of the collection site indicate that populations of this species have not become established on Oahu. The distribution of An. punctipennis largely coincides with the distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America. Although An. punctipennis is not an important vector of WNV, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis are important vectors of WNV and occur in areas of North America with active WNV transmission. Culex quinquefasciatus is established in Hawaii, and Cx. tarsalis has been detected on multiple occasions by quarantine. Increased quarantine inspections, disinsection of airline cargo holds, enhanced vector surveillance, and the development of sanitary corridors around airports and port facilities are necessary to reduce the introduction of vectors and pathogens.
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Vol. 21 • No. 2