Clinic data depicted a high incidence of malaria in a forest ecotype in the Kumaon foothills of District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. A study was therefore conducted to determine the risk factors associated with the transmission of malaria from 2002 to 2004. The man-hour densities of Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis varied from 2 to 139 and 1 to 69, respectively. The sporozoite rate of 0.24% was recorded in An. culicifacies. Sibling species investigation revealed prevalence of species B (53.8%) and C (46.2%) of An. culicifacies and of species T (100%) of An. fluviatilis complexes. The slide positivity rate and slide falciparum rate were 50.4% and 28.3%, respectively. The infant parasite rate was 42.9% and the enlarged spleen rate among the children was 25.95%. The findings revealed the persistence of malaria in the area mainly due to indigenous transmission through the malaria vector An. culicifacies and the inadequacy of intervention measures. Transmission could be curtailed by indoor residual application of malathion.
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Vol. 24 • No. 2