Black fly suppression programs are conducted across a wide range of environmental conditions, targeting a variety of pest species with diverse life histories. Operational applications of Vectobac® 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis) were conducted during times characterized by water temperature and turbidity extremes. Applications were conducted in the Yellow River in central Wisconsin targeting Simulium annulus and S. johannseni when water temperatures were 1–2°C. Applications were conducted in the Green River in western North Carolina targeting the S. jenningsi group after a rain event, when portions of the treatment zone experienced turbidities of 276 nephelometric turbidity units. Excellent larvicidal activity was observed in both programs, with 97% mortality or greater being observed at distances over 5 km downstream of a treatment site. Mortality data for larval black flies in 2 operational suppression programs conducted in 2011 demonstrated a negligible effect of near-freezing water temperatures and exceptionally high turbidity on Bti activity.
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