Ground ultra-low volume (ULV) application against Aedes albopictus is a challenging methodology as its efficacy is strongly related to environmental conditions, insect behavior, and the pesticide formulation. Such operations are very relevant in many control programs, although their real efficacy is often unknown. Trials were carried out as part of real-world applications in urban scenarios in the Baix Llobregat region to evaluate the efficacy of 2 active ingredients, delatamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin. Both pyrethroids were tested against caged mosquitoes placed at a range of distances and under varying environmental conditions. Additionally, persistence on plants placed at the same distances was evaluated after 5 h, as well as droplet distribution using water-sensitive papers. The deltamethrin formulation used yielded significantly higher 24-h mortality than alpha-cypermethrin (100% direct mortality up to 25 m versus 10 m; and 73.9% residual 5-h mortality at 20 m compared to <50% at 5 m). The influence of environmental factors, a comparison with other field tests, and the real effect on uncaged mosquitoes is discussed.
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