Wasp ichnofossils are scarce in the record because of their low preservational potential. Evidence comprises perforations in bee cells, cocoons, and paper and mud nests, whose preservation may involve the most unusual taphonomic processes. The record includes trace fossils preserved in other trace fossils; paper nests preserved in amber, ironstones and caves; and fragile trace fossils preserved in conglomerates. Evidence for wasps is weak in some cases and more reliable in others. Perforations in bee cells can be attributed to other insects; likewise cocoons can be attributed to other insects and other organic and inorganic processes. Some fossil paper and mud nests are the most reliable wasp ichnofossils. Brownichnus favosites preserved in ironstone and in Dominican amber, provide the oldest records of polistines known. One of the best-known examples of wasp ichnofossils is Chubutolithes gaimanensis, preserved in intraclast conglomerates. New ichnological and sedimentological evidence suggests that cells were constructed around plant stems from which they could have dropped to the soil, been covered with sediments, impregnated with carbonate, and then reworked by fluvial action along with other carbonate nodules.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 77 • No. 4