Differences between castes and related aspects in Parachartegus fraternus (Gribodo) have been studied in various stages of the colony cycle. Five colonies from three colony development stages (namely, pre-emergence, worker-producing and male-producing) were analyzed. The main results were: irrespective of colony age, castes were always morphologically indistinguishable; non-inseminated ovary-developed females were found in four colonies; because differences of castes were physiological rather than morphological, castes are evidently post-imaginally determined and this is probably taking place according to the colony conditions. These findings support the occurrence of caste totipotency in Parachartergus fraternus.
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