The bionomics of Ceramius caucasicus André was studied over a period of 14 days in the vicinity of Erzurum, East Anatolia. Following the concept of Gess and Gess (1988) the nesting and flower association of Ceramius caucasicus can be characterised by the following ethological elements: a. Nest excavated in clayey but quite crumbly soil; b. Burrow surmounted by a turret constructed using mud extracted from within the burrow; c. Re-use of nest unknown; d. Nest with a relatively short, vertical to sub-vertical main shaft; e. Main shaft continues into an oblique to subhorizontal secondary shaft terminated by a cell; f. Existence and form of further secondary shafts unknown; g. Cells sub-horizontal; h. No constructed mud-cell within an excavated-cell; i. Pollen of cell provision, Campanulaceae and Lamiaceae. Pollen of Campanulaceae and Lamiaceae is also present in the alimentary tract of males and females. Furthermore, the alimentary tract of males contains pollen of Resedaceae, Fabaceae and Dipsacaceae in lower proportions. Foraging males also visit Papaveraceae. Water is used to soften the soil. Females visit water collection sites. During water uptake they stand on wet ground, on or in dense vegetation or on soil covered by a thin film of water. Mating occurs at water collection sites and at flowers. Males and females mate repeatedly. Copulation lasts much longer than in the sister species. Females seem to avoid males. Activity at water collection sites indicates proterandry.
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Vol. 78 • No. 3