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1 April 2008 Nesting Biology and Social Behavior of Xenochlora Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini) from Perú
Simon M. Tierney, Therany Gonzales-Ojeda, William T. Wcislo
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The augochlorine (Halictidae) bee genus Xenochlora is the diurnal sister group to the nocturnal Megalopta, both of which are stem-nesting halictid bees. Here we present notes on the nesting biology and social behavior in four nests of Xenochlora nigrofemorata and one nest of X. ianthina from Madre de Dios, Perú. All nests contained multiple females and dissections of X. nigrofemorata indicated within nest reproductive differentiation among females that is associated with body size. Size variation among females is conspicuous and a variety of morphometrics are examined to document it. A genal index is used to describe cephalic variation, and results are compared with seven other halictine bees. All morphometrics were investigated for measurement error. Nests of Xenochlora appear to be founded by single females and multifemale nests clearly exhibit parasocial behavior and we hypothesize that they temporally switch between semisocial, eusocial and possibly communal phases.

Simon M. Tierney, Therany Gonzales-Ojeda, and William T. Wcislo "Nesting Biology and Social Behavior of Xenochlora Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini) from Perú," Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81(1), 61-72, (1 April 2008).
Accepted: 1 October 2007; Published: 1 April 2008
evolución social
nido en tallos
size variation
social evolution
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