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We assessed historical variations in environmental parameters affecting tree growth during the last 550 years in north-central Labrador, Canada, using dendroecological analysis of white spruce forests near two Inuit settlements. Tree surveys of both modern and archaeological wood samples provided data for dendroecological analysis of growth patterns and natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes and enabled more-refined dendrochronological dating of the occupation of archaeological sites. Previous Quebec-Labrador peninsula dendroecological studies have focused on climatic forcing agents; this study's coupling of annual tree-growth records to local-scale historical and archaeological data facilitates examination of multi-causal disturbance patterns over time. Low-intensity human interactions with forest ecosystems were significant factors influencing local-scale subarctic forest dynamics in coastal Labrador and should be taken into consideration in other studies.