The customary method for controlling leishmaniasis and sand fly bites in Israel is the spraying of large quantities of residual insecticides on walls of houses and neighboring surfaces. However, the high summer temperatures, strong radiation, and dust limit the efficacy of the method. The sand fly vectors of Leishmania appeared to come uphill to the village of Kfar Adumim. Therefore, to block their path and improve control, β-cyfluthrine or DDT were repeatedly sprayed on a strip of cloth that was stretched on the ground along and near the peripheral houses. The efficacy of the treatments was examined by comparing the proportions of sand flies that had been caught before and after the treatments, below and above the belt. The capture near the houses of sand flies that had been marked by colored sugar baits below the protective belt indicated that they were moving uphill and crossing the strip. The catches showed a gradual uphill decrease, up to the houses, in the number of sand flies. However, the proportions of sand flies caught in the different sites were similar before and after insecticide treatments showing that the belt was ineffective. Laboratory tests of pieces of the sprayed strip and exposure of sand flies to similar pieces indicated that the lack of effect was not caused by deficiency of insecticides.
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