The aim of this study was to measure the protective efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a new long-lasting factory-treated insecticidal net (LLIN) incorporated with 2% permethrin and 1% of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO), against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission under field conditions. A village-scale trial, promoting the use of LLIN by the local inhabitants of the study area was conducted as a pilot study in a new hyperendemic focus of CL caused by a Leishmania infantum/L. donovani hybrid parasite transmitted by proven vector species Phlebotomus tobbi in Cukurova Plain, Adana, Turkey, between May, 2013 and May, 2014. The study area comprised eight villages; two of them were selected as an intervention village with Olyset® Plus net (Kizillar) and a control village without net application (Malihidirli). Six villages with surrounding allopatric barriers were utilized as a buffer zone cluster between intervention and control villages. Monthly entomological surveys were performed in the intervention and control villages and Damyeri, representing the other six villages, to collect adults of Phlebotomus tobbi. Results showed a significant reduction in cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in the intervention village from 4.78% to 0.37%. The protective efficacy rate of LLIN was 92.2%. In contrast, incidence rates increased in the control village from 3.67% to 4.69%. We also evaluated residual insecticide levels of used nets after six and 12 months of usage. It was determined that the nets had retained full insecticidal strength. These results highlight the value of real-world data on bed net effectiveness and longevity to guide decisions regarding sand fly control strategies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first field study to evaluate Olyset® Plus efficacy in a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis area.
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Vol. 39 • No. 2