The dicynodont wastebasket genus Dicynodon is revised following a comprehensive review of nominal species. Most nominal species of Dicynodon pertain to other well-known dicynodont genera, especially Oudenodon and Diictodon. Of the Karoo Permian species that are referable to “Dicynodon” sensu lato, we recognize four common, valid morphospecies: Dicynodon lacerticeps, D. leoniceps, D. woodwardi, and Dinanomodon gilli, comb. nov. Eleven additional species of “Dicynodon” are recognized worldwide: D. alticeps, D. amalitzkii, D. bathyrhynchus, D. benjamini, D. bogdaensis, D. huenei, D. limbus, D. sinkianensis, D. traquairi, D. trautscholdi, and D. vanhoepeni. Morphometric analysis of D. lacerticeps and D. leoniceps specimens recovers statistically significant separation between these species in snout profile and squamosal shape, supporting their distinction. A new phylogenetic analysis of Anomodontia reveals that “Dicynodon” is polyphyletic, necessitating taxonomic revision at the generic level. D. benjamini and D. limbus are basal cryptodonts, whereas the other valid “Dicynodon” species are basal dicynodontoids. The genus Dicynodon is restricted to D. lacerticeps and D. huenei. We reinstate use of Daptocephalus, Sintocephalus, Turfanodon, Daqingshanodon, Jimusaria, and Gordonia for other species. We synonymize Vivaxosaurus permirus and Dicynodon trautscholdi (as V. trautscholdi, comb, nov.) We establish new generic names for several species formerly included in Dicynodon: Peramodon amalitzkii, comb, nov., Keyseria benjamini, comb, nov., Euptychognathus bathyrhynchus, comb, nov., Syops vanhoepeni, comb, nov., and Basilodon woodwardi, comb. nov. Of the main Karoo Permian taxa, Dicynodon, Basilodon, and Dinanomodon range throughout the Cistecephalus and Dicynodon assemblage zones, but Daptocephalus is restricted to the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone.
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