Qijianglong guokr, gen. et sp. nov., represents a mamenchisaurid eusauropod from the Late Jurassic of southern China. The holotype consists of an incomplete skull, partly articulated axial skeleton, and fragmentary appendicular skeleton. A well-preserved braincase and skull roof provide rare insights into the poorly known neurocranial anatomy of mamenchisaurids and reveal a unique combination of characters such as an accessory tuber at the base of planar basipterygoid process and parietal excluding frontal from the anterior margin of the supratemporal fenestra. The cervical vertebrae have a distinct finger-like process extending from the postzygapophyseal process beside a zygapophyseal contact. Qijianglong is the first mamenchisaurid from the Late Jurassic of China that is definitively distinct from Mamenchisaurus, indicating greater morphological and taxonomic diversity of the poorly represented Late Jurassic mamenchisaurids. The occurrence of Qijianglong is consistent with a scenario in which mamenchisaurids formed an endemic sauropod fauna in the Late Jurassic of Asia. Phylogenetically, Qijianglong represents a relatively plesiomorphic mamenchisaurid lineage. The mamenchisaurids form an ancient clade of basal eusauropod dinosaurs that likely appeared in the Early Jurassic. A cladistic analysis highlights the interrelationships of mamenchisaurids and suggests guidelines for mamenchisaurid taxonomic revision. It may be desirable to restrict generic names to the type species in order to avoid confusion.
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