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Prevalence of renal urolithiasis in a large, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd was examined over a two-year period of time. In 1973, 1.3% of 225 deer examined had calculi in the renal pelvis and 4.4% had kidney lesions, either independent or in combination with the calculi. In 1974, prevalence increased and 5.9% of 354 deer had calculi and 6.5% had kidney lesions. Calculi and lesions affected all sex and age-classes. Involvement was both unilateral and bilateral with 23.8% having stones in both kidneys and 30.4% having lesions in both kidneys. Lesions and calculi occurred together in 42.8% of cases. Etiology is unknown, but possible relationships are discussed.
A serologic survey of a wild cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) population in southern Wisconsin was conducted from November-March, 1971-72 and November-April, 1972-73, to determine prevalence of antibody against Herpesvirus sylvilagus. Flea burdens on each live-trapped cottontail were quantified by species. All but six of the 5029 fleas collected were Cediopsylla simplex. No correlation was found between flea infestation and viral antibody. Of 101 cottontail rabbits trapped, only six had specific antibody as determined by plaque neutralization in rabbit kidney cell culture. Three of the six developed antibody between January and March of the trapping season. Blood samples from 46 captured rabbits were negative for virus.
A study was conducted to evaluate leptospirosis in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and mice (Mus musculus) in southeastern Larimer County, Colorado. Leptospira serotype icterohaemorrhagiae was isolated from fourteen of 143 feral brown rats, an infection rate of 9.8%. Serological evidence of infection with this stereotype was found in 66.4% of the rats. Serological evidence of L. serotype ballum infection was present in three of 17 muskrats. Leptospires were seen in histological sections of kidney tissue from two of 61 feral mice. No isolations were made from cultures and serology was not done on mice.
Histological examination of 69 pairs of infected kidneys from 12 species of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora revealed that leptospires were confined mainly to the proximal and distal convoluted tubule, were less often found in the thick loop of Henle and only rarely in the collecting duct. On no occasion were the organisms present in the thin loop of Henle. Preliminary observations on the relationship of leptospires to tubule epithelium indicate some degree of physical attachment. It is suggested that the avoidance of the thin loop of Henle might be a reflection of its structural properties.
A survey of serum samples from mammals trapped in Central Ontario showed that many contained antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The prevalence of infection as reflected by positive reactions in the Sabin-Feldman Dye Test appeared to be related to the type of diet of each species examined, and specifically, to the proportion of rodents in the diet. Of the fox blood samples tested, 84% were positive. The percentage of positive samples diminished through, coyote, mink, bear, fisher skunk, raccoon, marten and rabbit. Blood samples from squirrel, deer, hare and groundhog were negative.
Serum neutralizing antibodies to four serotypes of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus (SMSV) were demonstrated in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. These results show a wide geographic distribution of SMS viruses in the marine environment and indicate that certain terrestrial mammals have been infected with these so-called marine viruses. Evidence is presented supporting the theory that unidentified submammalian marine species are a reservoir for SMSV.
Mercury poisoning was diagnosed in a clinically-ill wild mink (Mustela vison) on the basis of clinical signs, histopathologic lesions and tissue mercury concentrations. The probable source of mercury was through ingestion of fish from the nearby South Saskatchewan River which is known to be contaminated with mercury. This is believed to be the first documented case of mercury intoxication of a wild animal in North America.
Blood samples were obtained from canvasback ducklings from Manitoba and Saskatchewan and from immature and adult canvasbacks on the Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin and the Chesapeake Bay. These samples were used to determine baseline data on red cell counts, hematocrit, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, hemaglobin and distribution of plasma proteins. Calculations were also made to determine mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The major differences noted were between ducklings and adults. The former having higher total protein and lower hematocrit, glucose and cholesterol values. These hematologic values were collected in order to provide baseline information on apparently healthy canvasbacks, thereby providing disease investigators with a standard of comparison.
Uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total serum protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and chloride concentrations in the blood plus pH, bilirubin, ketone, blood, protein and glucose levels in the urine were determined for gray squirrels captured in Jacksonville, Florida. Significant differences were not noted for any of these values when compared by the age or sex of the animals, by breeding or lactation status, by month of capture, or by habitat type. Depressed blood glucose and elevated blood urea nitrogen levels were observed in squirrels with shock syndrome.
Several wild species of birds, including starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and pigeons (Columba livia) gained access to an aviary housing Rothchild's mynahs (Leucospar rothchildii) and over 100 additional birds representing a variety of species. Six of approximately 15 mynahs became infected with avian pox and all of them died. None of the other birds in the aviary developed lesions. Pox virus was isolated from mynah facial lesions on chicken chorioallantoic membrane and in duck embryo fibroblast cell culture. It did not produce lesions in white Leghorn chickens, but did produce lesions in 4 of 11 wild starlings captured outside the aviary. Results indicated the agent was an indigenous starling pox capable of infecting and producing disease in mynah birds. Destruction of the captive starlings and isolation of the remaining mynahs immediately stopped the mortality.
An epizootic of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and woodchucks (Marmota monax) caused by Baylisascaris procyonis larvae followed the establishment of an ascarid-infected raccoon (Procyon lotor) population in a woodlot. Five of seven raccoons examined from the woodlot harbored ascarids, with one heavily infected animal shedding approximately 27,500 eggs per gram of feces. A laboratory-reared cottontail rabbit developed neurologic disease due to larval migration 80 days after infection with B. procyonis eggs from the raccoons.
Thirty-three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of various ages, both sexes, and in good physical condition were captured for anthelmintic evaluation of six compounds against the large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna. Based on fluke mortality, hexachlorophene administered at the rate of 12 to 26 mg/kg of body weight was lethal to 5 of 10 mature flukes in seven deer. Nitroxynil at 11 to 24 mg/kg inhibited egg production, but did not kill mature flukes in eight deer. Rafoxanide at 12 to 25 mg/kg killed 6 of 8 (75%) immature flukes in eight deer, but was not effective against 17 mature flukes. Clioxanide at 16 to 38 mg/kg, diamphenethide at 255 to 280 mg/kg, and hexachloroethane at 463 to 629 mg/kg were not effective against F. magna in four, two and four deer, respectively. There was no indication that treatment with fasciolicides at the higher dose rates was more efficacious than at the lower dose rates.
Detection of fluke eggs in the feces was a reliable method for diagnosing the presence of mature F. magna in deer prior to treatment, but was not reliable for measuring fasciolicidal activity of all compounds tested.
Concentrations of lead and zinc in the kidneys of 180 urban gray squirrels were determined by spectrophotometry and found similar for all age groups; however, concentrations of cadmium increased up to two years of age. Values for 12 rural squirrels were significantly lower than those of the urban animals. There were no differences in mean concentrations of the metals when urban squirrels were grouped by the land usage pattern of the sites in which they were captured. Grouping squirrels by human socioeconomic strata for the city revealed that squirrels in low socioeconomic areas have significantly higher levels of lead than animals residing in middle or high socioeconomic areas.
Coccidioidomycosis in an adult male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is described. The animal was housed in a zoo in Tucson, Arizona, for approximately 5 years. This is believed to be the first reported case of coccidioidomycosis in a marine mammal.
The bacterium causing enteric redmouth (ERM) and Aeromonas salmonicida were found to be equally pathogenic for fingerling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Injection of 5 × 105 cells of ERM or A. salmonicida killed all salmon within 96 h. After a 30 min exposure to water-borne cells of the two test bacteria about one-half of the test salmon died within 14 days. Both ERM and A. salmonicida were transmitted horizontally. Results indicate that efforts should be made to prevent introduction of ERM into watersheds where Atlantic salmon occur.
Parasitism was studied in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) which shared a common range in eastern West Virginia. Of 30 species of internal parasites, 11 were found in deer and 22 in sheep. Five parasites, Sarcocystis sp., Cysticercus tenuicollis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Cooperia punctata, and Gongylonema pulchrum, occurred in both deer and sheep. An index of similarity of 17.2 suggests that the parasite faunas of these hosts are distinct, and that it is unlikely that white-tailed deer are reservoirs of common parasites of domestic sheep in the southern Appalachian region.
Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia enterocolitica-like bacteria were isolated from 22 of 90 fecal samples taken from five herds of wapiti studied in northwestern California. The serotypes included: (5), (6), (11), (16), (2,19), (4,16) and (6,15). In one herd, all of the organisms were isolated from within a one hectare area. A significantly higher (p < .02) prevalence of isolations was obtained during April and May.
A lorikeet (unidentified species of subfamily Loriinae), which died of coliform septicemia subsequent to an esophageal ulcer also had intranuclear inclusion bodies in the proximal convoluted tubular lining cells of the kidney. The ultrastructure of these inclusion bodies was compared with those described in experimental lead-induced inclusion bodies of rats.
Three hundred forty-three birds representing six orders and 22 species were examined serologically for antibodies against rabies. Low passive hemagglutination titers were observed in 23 samples. Fifteen of 65 (23.1%) predatory birds and 8 of 278 (2.9%) non-predatory birds were positive. Rabies antibody positive sera from non-predatory species were from species commonly thought to be scavengers suggesting the importance of the oral route for the presentation of rabies virus to birds.
Hepatic fatty cirrhosis (HFC) has been known to occur in certain domestic livestock species since 1931. Early studies in Texas indicated that HFC was restricted to five western counties. Recently HFC was identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) in South Texas for the first time. Of the deer examined, 25% were affected. The etiology of HFC was not determined.
Hemograms were performed on blood samples collected from 35 coyotes (Canis latrans). Hematologic values were established for conditioned, captive wild coyotes under controlled conditions of environment and nutrition.
Geotrichum candidum was isolated from necrotic skin lesions in one of three captive carpet snakes (Morelia spilotes variegata). Hyphae and arthrospores morphologically consistent with this organism were present in histological preparations of lesions from the three snakes.
Five thousand and forty-six smears from 352 species of birds in Ethiopia were examined for blood parasites in an attempt to provide base-line data, to indicate fruitful areas for further study, on avian hematozoa. The prevalence of infection and the parasites found, with particular reference to Plasmodium, are discussed. At least 22 parasite species were recognized.
Inoculation of susceptible calves confirmed that the modified card agglutination test accurately detected the anaplasmosis infection status of each of 35 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Anaplasma marginal, and specific antibodies, were demonstrated only in calves which received blood from deer that were positive by the card test. The modified card agglutination testing of deer serum was performed in the manner recommended for testing cattle serum with bovine-origin antigen and bovine serum factor.
Two hundred and sixteen wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), 111 impala (Aepyceros melampus), 39 eland (Taurotragus oryx) and 9 hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii) were drug-immobilized for capture or for handling in captivity. Drugs used for capture were combinations of xylazine, etorphine and acepromazine, or xylazine and fentanyl, with or without the addition of azaperone. For restraint in captivity, xylazine alone proved to be satisfactory in most instances. Drugs were injected with projectile syringes. Recommendation on dosage are given.
A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was fed the carcass of an experimentally infected rabid skunk. The bird developed antibody titer to rabies, detected by passive haemagglutination, 27 days after oral inoculation by ingestion. The owl suppressed the infection until corticosteroid administration, after which a maximum antibody titer was attained. Evidence of active rabies viral infection was seen by fluorescent antibody staining of oral swabs, corneal impression smears and histologic tissue smears, by suckling mouse inoculation of oral swab washings, and by transmission electron microcopy. No clinical signs of rabies virus infection were observed.
Anaerobic bacteria tentatively identified as species of Catenabacterium were recovered from brain, liver, kidney and blood of fish involved in a massive epizootic of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and redfish (Sciaenops ocellata). Pathogenicity was demonstrated for grey mullet (M. cephalus) and sea catfish (Arius jelis) but not for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) or white mice. Diseased fish were disoriented, weak and swimming at the surface of the water. Thioglycolate and salt bovine blood agar containing 40 μg/ml gentamicin were useful as selective culture media.
Blood films from 421 birds of 142 species, representing 29 avian families, from the environs of Cali, Colombia, were examined for blood parsites. Only 30 (7.1%) birds of 26 species harbored hematozoa. Species of Haemoproteus (3.1%) and microfilaria (2.3%) were the most commonly encountered blood parasites; species of Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, Akiba and Lankesterella were found in a few birds. Mixed infections with more than one genus of blood parasite were rare; most infections encountered were of low intensity.
Six serotypes of salmonellae, Salmonella offa, S. glostrup, S. wimborne, S. dublin, S. saint-paul and S. webridge were isolated from captive wild animals in Ibadan, Western State of Nigeria. S. wimborne and S. glostrup are reported for the first time in Nigeria. All strains were sensitive to nitrofurantoin (200 mcg) and chloramphenical (10 mcg) but there was marked resistance to sulphafurazole (100 meg) and penicillin (1.5 units).