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Eight of 9 beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Churchill River Basin were infected with Pharurus pallasii. The age range of infected whales was from under 1 year to 30 years. All adult infected animals had a large number of parasites in the accessory sinus, together with variable degrees of pulmonary granulomatous response. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed little host response to adult P. pallasii, but a strong inflammatory reaction to larval structures. Within the head, P. pallasii were found in the accessory sinus, ear canal and cerebral spinal fluid.
A neurologic condition closely resembling a common human disease, hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, is described in a captive dolphin. Motor deficits and the possibiltiy that behavioral changes resulted in the animal's being attacked and driven off by its herdmates, are discussed in terms of damage resulting from the hemorrhagic lesion.
Examination of the reproductive tract of a mature spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, revealed 13 vaginal calculi, composed primarily of calcium phosphate compounds. Vaginal calculi also were found in two mature Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and in six mature Delphinus delphis.
A total of 918 mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) collected from six localities in Florida over a three year period (1973-1976) was examined for haematozoan infections. Three species of haematozoans were encountered: Haemoproteus maccallumi (92% prevalence), H. sacharovi (3% prevalence), and Leucocytozoon marchouxi (0.1% prevalence). No trypanosome or Plasmodium infections were found. Adult doves did not show sexually or seasonally-related differences in infection intensity. Immature doves, however, had parasitemias which showed cyclic seasonal fluctuations, but since these decreased with age, this seasonal fluctuation was interpreted to be due to changes in age composition of the population and not season itself. Doves from northern Florida showed significantly lower parasitemias than doves from the southern part of the state.
Adult cowbirds from the Houston, Texas area were examined for Sarcocystis by three methods. Macroscopically, 53 of 253 (20.9%) birds examined were positive. Microscopic examination of abdominal muscle from 62 of the 200 negative birds showed another 4 (6.4%) to be infected. Pepsin digestion, the most sensitive technique for macroscopically negative birds, showed 7 of the 62 (11.2%) to be infected.
Disarticulated mandibles from prehistoric Aleutian sea mammals showed three general categories of paleopathology: (1) lesions imposed on the dentition and surrounding bone by bacteria and their by-products observed in 13 of 49, (2) lesions associated with periodontal disease observed in 14 of 49, and (3) lesions associated with mechanical attrition in 6 of 49. The sea mammal bones obtained from prehistoric eastern Aleutian village refuse middens suggest that younger and possibly weakened or old animals were preferentially captured by the Aleuts, although it remains to be determined the actual proportion of young to old, and the proportion of sick to healthy, in the natural populations. Radiography may be useful to determine the extent of dento-alveolar abscesses and periodontal disease in the absence of soft tissues for examination.
Seven colonies of Eptesicus fuscus, the big brown bat, and five colonies of Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, in New York State were sampled for rabies virus and virus-neutralizing antibody. Eight of 278 E. fuscus were found to have virus, while 18 of 187 had antibody titers of ≥1:8. One of 333 M. lucifugus yielded virus, while three of 127 had antibody. These data demonstrate the presence of rabies virus as well as immunity to rabies in some insectivorous bats of New York State. Evaluation of these findings in relation to the epizootiology of the disease in bats requires further investigation.
Ten of twelve species of wild ducks examined in central Saskatchewan were infected with renal coccidia. Of 261 ducks examined during autumn migration, 24.5% were infected while only 4% of 74 ducks examined during spring migration were infected. The greatest prevalence of infection occurred in female and juvenile birds. No gross lesions attributable to coccidia were found, and microscopic lesions were focal in nature. Oocysts from mallards were transmitted to captive mallards.
During the summer of 1976, an epornitic of verminous peritonitis caused by Eustrongylides ignotus resulted in large scale mortality of young herons and egrets on Pea Patch Island, Delaware. Mortality was highest (84%) in snowy egret nestlings (Egretta thula) and less severe in great egrets (Casmerodius albus), Louisiana herons (Hydranassa tricolor), little blue herons (Florida caerulea), and black crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Most deaths occured within the first 4 weeks after hatching. Migration of E. ignotus resulted in multiple perforations of the visceral organs, escape of intestinal contents into the body cavity and subsequent bacterial peritonitis. Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) served as the source of infective larvae.
A serologic survey of the blacktail jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) for infections with 10 arboviruses was conducted from 1971 through 1974 along the Sacramento River in Butte County, California. Of 325 animals captured and bled a total of 493 times, 40% were found positive for hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody to California encephalitis (CE) virus, 34% to western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus, 20% to Buttonwillow virus, 15% to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and 12% to Main Drain virus. Only 5 and 2% of the animals had HI antibodies to Lokern and Turlock (TUR) viruses, respectively. There was no serologic evidence for infection of animals with Powassan, Modoc and Rio Bravo viruses. Differenles in monthly and yearly activities of some viruses were found by analyses of lata on antibody prevalence rates and immunologic conversions in recaptured animals.
Experimental studies revealed that subadult jackrabbits were highly susceptible by subcutaneous inoculation to infection with CE, WEE and SLE viruses but were refractory to infection with TUR virus. All animals infected with CE and WEE viruses developed viremia that persisted for 2 or 3 days after inoculation and then developed antibodies that were detectable from 7 through at least 56 days after infection. In contrast, only 2 of 7 animals that developed HI antibodies to SLE virus had viremia, and at barely detectable levels; and HI antibodies were undetectable in 3 of the 7 animals at 56 days after infection.
A total of 2696 wild mammals from Fennoscandia were surveyed for tularemia. Francisella tularensis was not detected in livers/spleens or kidneys from any of the 1992 small rodents captured in Norway and Denmark as judged by one or more of the following methods: cultivation, immunofluorescence microscopy and inoculation in laboratory mice. Serologic examination of 704 wild mammals from Norway, Finland and Sweden demonstrated 11 cases of antibody titers. Agglutinating antibodies were demonstrated in 2 of 565 small rodents (titer 1:160), 2 of 26 wild rabbits (titer 1:80) and in 7 of 60 red deer (titer 1:20-1:40). The titers in red deer were low and could be due to cross reactions. No agglutinating antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of 53 domestic reindeer.
Nine Lichtenstein's hartebeest (Alcelaphus lichtensteini) were sampled for nasal bots (Oestrinae) in a woodland area of central western Zambia. Larvae of the genera Gedoelstia, Oestrus and Kirkioestrus were found in mixed infestations in the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. A maximum count of 252 larvae was recorded from one head but no obvious pathogenicity was detectable in this or any other hartebeest. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the host specificity of the nasal bots and to gedoelstial myiasis of domestic livestock in the area where they interact with infected hartebeest.
Precipitin antibody which reacted with the hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) of turkeys/marble spleen disease (MSD) of pheasants group of avian adenoviruses, was not detected in serum samples of 618 wild birds (42 species) from Florida, Texas and Virginia. HE/MSD precipitin antibody was detected in serum samples of pen-reared ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) which had experienced MSD, but not in serum samples of similar MSD unaffected birds.
A total of 77 adult and 123 juvenile willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) from the island of Karlsöy, and 75 adult and 63 juvenile willow grouse from Sennaland on the mainland of North Norway were examined for helminths. Raillietina urogalli and Hymenolepis microps, and Ascaridia compar and Syngamus trachea were found. All four species occurred regularly in grouse from Karlsöy between April and September-October, but only H. microps was frequently found in birds from Sennaland. S. trachea only parasitised juvenile grouse.
Blood films from 361 sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) from North Park, Colorado, were examined for hematozoa. Parasites found were: Plasmodium pedioecetii, Haemoproteus canachites, Leucocytozoon bonasae, Trypanosoma avium, and microfilariae. The sage grouse represents a new host record for Plasmodium. Prevalence of parasitism was not age or sex related, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences between age or sex class. Parasite burdens increased significantly (P < 0.05) from January through May. As these burdens rose prior to the emergence of potential vectors, probably it was a true relapse associated with the resumption of the hosts' sexual activity.
Twenty Trichomonas-free ringed turtle doves (Streptopelia risoria) were inoculated per os with the highly virulent Jones' Barn strain of Trichomonas gallinae. None became infected. Three F1 females housed together were similarly inoculated with this strain and remained Trichomonas-positive for upwards of 182 days. They showed no disease and eventually lost their infections. These three positive females “mated” and laid several six-egg sets in a communal nest. At successive nestings they were given: 1) a fertile domestic pigeon (Columba livia) egg, and 2) two fertile ringed dove eggs, all of which hatched. The pigeon squab died of trichomoniasis on day four; the doves survived to maturity. When trichomonads from these doves were placed in Trichomonas-free domestic pigeons the latter all died of T. gallinae trichomoniasis on postinoculation day 8.1 (average).
Gulls (Larvus pipixcan) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were experimentally exposed to a turkey influenza A isolant, A/turkey/Minn/BF/72 (Hav6Neq 2). No clinical signs of disease were observed in either species. Tracheal shedding of virus from the gulls persisted for 24 days post-inoculation but virus later than 6 days post exposure could not be demonstrated in either tracheal or cloacal samples from the mallards. Precipitating antibodies were not detected. Hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies were demonstrated in inoculated gulls but antibody levels were low and erratic in ducks.
This paper reports the first record of a mallophagan species on the Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli). The numbers and distribution of Bovicola jellisoni on two Dall's sheep collected on Crescent Mountain, Kenai Peninsula, Alasaka, is described.
A 10-year survey for serologic titers to brucellosis and leptospirosis in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus canadensis), and antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Colorado is summarized. Over 10,000 blood samples were tested against Brucella abortus and 4,747 samples were tested against Leptospira pomona. A total of 1,761 blood samples were tested against L. canicola, L. grippotyphosa, L. hardjo, L. icterohemorrhagiae. All results were considered negative.
Twenty-one complete carcasses of black bears, Ursus americanus, together with 34 intestinal tracts, 86 diaphragms and 168 faecal droppings collected between June, 1971 and November, 1972 in the Province of Quebec were examinel for helminths. Species found and their prevalence were as follows: Dirofilaria ursi in 57%; Uncinaria yukonensis in 6%; Baylisascaris transfuga in 21%; larvae of Trichinella spiralis in less than 1%; Diphyllobothrium ursi in 36%; and Taenia krabbei and Taenia hydatigena in 4%. These findings are discussed in the light of other reports.
Thirty-eight shoveler ducks, Anas clypeata, were collected in the Rio Grande Valley, Hudspeth County, Texas. Nineteen species of helminths, six species of lice and a sarcosporidian, Sarcocystis rileyi, were recorded. Seventeen of the nineteen species of helminths were observed in fall migrants and twelve species were recorded from spring migrants. The nematode Alifilaria pochardi Ali, 1969, is a new host and American record.
Neurologic disease attributed to infection by meningeal worm (Parela-phostrongylus tenuis) was diagnosed in seven fallow deer (Dama dama) from the Land Between The Lakes region of Kentucky. Afflicted deer had paresis or paralysis of the hindquarters which quickly progressed to tetraplegia. Gross and microscopic cerebrospinal lesions were similar to those previously reported and consisted mainly of nonsuppurative meningitis and radiculitis, focal granulomas on the surface of the spinal cord, and nonselective malacia and glial scarring in brain and spinal cord. Living P. tenuis were recovered from brain or spinal cord in two deer, and degenerating nematodes were found in four. Possible epizootiologic relationships between the parasite, fallow deer and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are discussed.
Two captive-born juvenile collared peccaries (Dicotyles tajacu angulatus) were given 3000 infective larvae of Stephanurus dentatus per os. One peccary harbored viable S. dentatus sub-adults in the liver 50 days post-infection. The other peccary had no larvae but did have diffuse fibrotic hepatic lesions and bile duct hyperplasia 213 days post-infection; however, the lesions may have been partially due to a concurrent Ascaris suum infection. A domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) infected as a control was severely but non-patently parasitized 170 days postinfection.
Three populations of wild foxes were sampled for serum neutralizing antibody to calicivirus (San Miguel sea lion virus) types 1-5. Neutralizing activity was detected in serum from gray foxes resident on Santa Cruz Island, California, but not in Arctic foxes from Alaska. The results indicate that foxes may be naturally infected with caliciviruses, but their role in the transmission cycle is unknown.