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An outbreak of pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida is reported in which six elands (Taurotragus oryx), a gnu (Connochaetes taurinus albojubatus), a zebra (Equus burchelli), five kangaroos (Macropus rufus), an ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus) and a bateleur eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus) died in Kano Zoological Gardens toward the end of the rainy season of 1978. Confirmation was based on cultural isolation of P. multocida. Analysis of likely factors that could have contributed to the outbreak indicated that it may have been precipitated initially by climatic stress associated with changes in rainfall, relative humidity and temperature.
Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from the lungs of all of six mountain voles (Microtus montanus) found dead or dying of pulmonary infection near the Bear River Research Station in northern Utah in January, 1973. The possibility of concomitant viral or mycoplasmal infection was not ruled out.
Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the brain of a neonatal northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) with gross and microscopic lesions of meningoencephalomyelitis. Microscopic lesions in the liver and lung suggested septicemia.
Four hundred sixty-eight wild mammals were collected from four ranches in Texas where Brucella-infected cattle herds are maintained, and examined as possible reservoir hosts for Brucella abortus. Seventy-one serums from five species were tested for Brucella antibodies. Liver and spleen from 453 mammals (14 species) were cultured for B. abortus. Results of the serologic and bacteriologic examination of rodents, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), raccoons (Procyon lotor) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) did not provide evidence of an extrabovine reservoir of B. abortus.
Eleven species of wintering waterfowl were trapped on the Welder Wildlife Foundation, San Patricio County, Texas, between October, 1976 and May, 1977. Blood films were made from 580 ducks. Leucocytozoon simondi, Haemoproteus nettionis, Plasmodium circumflexum, and a microfilaria were found in three species. These blood parasites occurred in 70 lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 12 blue-winged teals (Anas discors), and 3 ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris). There was no difference in the rates of infection between the sexes of the three host species. Adult blue-winged teal and lesser scaup were more heavily infected than juveniles. Juvenile ring-necked ducks had more parasites than adults. Blood parasites were found in 85 of 580 ducks (14.6%) throughout the wintering period.
The prevalence of avian hematozoa in 1791 birds of 80 species and 22 families from Jamaica was determined. Species of Haemoproteus were the most common hematozoan encountered. Species of Leucocytozoon were diagnosed only in three over-wintering North American migrants and the genus was absent in native Jamaican birds. The low prevalence of infection (7.4%) of blood parasites in Jamaican birds was closely similar to that seen in Neotropical birds and far below that noted for the Nearctic avifauna of the same families. Prevalence in adult and young birds was virtually identical; transmission occurred primarily during the period February-April.
Haemoproteus infection was confirmed in white Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) following placement in a pond where severe mortality from a respiratory condition apparently caused by schizonts of Haemoproteus had occurred in muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata). Blood from one infected white Pekin duck was experimentally inoculated into five muscovy ducks; two of the five developed large numbers of schizonts in the endothelial cells and died. Illness did not occur in the white Pekin ducks.
All of 116 northern fur seals examined, except black pups (up to 3 months old), had nasal mites, Orthohalarachne attenuata and O. diminuata, with the mean density of 1,808 mites per subadult male, 435 per adult female, 251 per silver pup, and 21.5 per black pup. Only 63% of black pups examined were infested with both mites. Larvae represented as much as 99% of the total mite population (total samples), and the females of both species of Orthohalarachne accounted for more than 90% of the total population of adult mites. The O. attenuata adults inhabited the nasopharynx and O. diminuata adults were found primarily in the lungs. Larvae of both species occupied the mucus-filled turbinates. The heavy infestation with these mites appeared to result in impairment of respiration in fur seals, and could also cause lesions in the lungs and secondary alveolar emphysems, predispose to more serious diseases, or even kill the host animal.
Six critical tests with disophenol were conducted in July, 1978, in fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) naturally-infected with adult hookworms, Uncinaria lucasi, and infested with various stages of two species of sucking lice, Proechinopthirus fluctus (Ferris) and Antarctophthirus callorhini (Osborn). Disophenol at a dose rate of 12.5 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously to each of six pups. Each pup was contained in an individual cage for 60 h posttreatment at which time pups were examined at necropsy. Efficacy against hookworms ranged from 2% to 88% and of both species of lice ranged from 26% to 90% for the six pups. Disophenol removed approximately 90% of all adult lice but only slightly more than 60% of all nymphs. The only sign of toxicosis was a probable drug related fluid-like feces for four pups from 12 to 60 h posttreatment.
Free-ranging waterfowl wintering in and migrating through central Oklahoma were collected and examined for intestinal helminths. Seventy-one ducks, including mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), American widgeons (Anas americana), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were examined; 64 (90.1%) harbored one or more species of metazoa. Six cestodes, 6 trematodes, 6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan were identified. An experimental, non-flying population of ducks was established and monitored to determine the extent of helminth transmission in central Oklahoma. Seven species of helminths were acquired by the sentinel birds during the study. The significance of the parasites recovered and variations in prevalence and species composition of the infections are discussed as they relate to the life cycles of the parasites and the ecology of the hosts.
Examination of 609 band-tailed pigeons (Columba fasciata fasciata) collected in Colorado revealed two species of cestodes and four of nematodes. Two of these were new host records. Helminths found were Hymenolepis armata, Raillietina sp., Ascaridia columbae, Splendidofilaria columbensis, S. hibleri and Chandlerella robinsoni. Of 609 pigeons examined, 76 (12.5%) harbored helminths. Helminths were not found in pigeons younger than 9 months of age.
A granulomatous mesenteric mass containing numerous adult Lagochilascaris major was found in a raccoon near Houston, Texas. This is the first report of a Lagochilascaris in a species other than the opossum in North America.
The upper respiratory tracts of 534 wild anatids representing 20 species, shot during the 1976, 1977 and 1978 hunting seasons, were examined for Typhlocoelum cucumerinum (Rudolphi, 1809). Typhlocoelum cucumerinum cymbium (Diesing, 1850) were recovered from Anas platyrhynchos, Anas rubripes, Anas acuta, Anas discors and Anas crecca. The maximum prevalence (16.7%) and intensity of infection (1.6) occurred in mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Aythya valisineria and Aythya marila harboured Typhlocoelum cucumerinum cucumerinum (Rudolphi, 1809). The maximum prevalence (14.3%) and intensity of infection (8.0) occurred in canvasbacks (A. valisineria). Of the 13 other species of ducks examined, none were infected with T. cucumerinum.
Prior to 1978, no reports were made of scabies lesions or mites recovered from any Mexican bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) examined in the San Andres National Wildlife Refuge in southern New Mexico. In 1978, all of five rams harvested by hunters had live mites of the genus Psoroptes and active lesions of scabies in their ears and/or on their bodies. Deaths due to scabies were not documented during this outbreak although aerial helicopter surveys conducted in March, June and September, 1979 recorded less than half the sheep observations of five previous and similarly conducted surveys. After measurement of the length of the outer opisthosomal setae of the male mites, they appear to be Psoroptes ovis (Hering), the common scabies mite of domestic sheep, cattle and horses. Final specific determination must await proposed transmission studies with domestic livestock.
Sporocysts from tiger snakes (Notechis ater) produced thick-walled sarcocysts in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus). Ultrastructurally these organisms were identical with sarcocysts found in native rats, but were different from Sarcocystis singaporensis. Sarcocystis murinotechis sp.n. is proposed for this parasite of rodents and tiger snakes.
When naturally-infected rats were fed to kittens (Felis domestica, quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus) and a masked owl (Tyto novaehollandiae) no sporocysts were detected in the faeces of these animals. Also, sporocysts from owls (T. novaehollandiae and Ninox novaeseelandiae) were not infective for rats (R. norvegicus).
In the past 12 years (1967–79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in Colorado and more recently in Wyoming. Clinical signs were seen in adult deer and included behavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2 weeks to 8 months. Gross necropsy findings included emaciation and excess rumen fluid admixed with sand and gravel. Consistent histopathologic change was limited to the central nervous system and characterized by widespread spongiform transformation of the neuropil, single or multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles in neuronal perikaryons and intense astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Presented is a clinical characterization of chronic wasting disease and pathologic evidence supporting the conclusion that the disease is a specific spontaneously occurring form of spongiform encephalopathy.
The haematology of the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea was studied in a breeding colony on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. The methods used to catch and restrain the animals are described and the haematology of 38 animals of varying age and sex groups is recorded. Total values for both erythrocytes and leucocytes were similar to those of other marine mammals and were in the ranges of 4.77 to 6.08 × 106 mm3 and 6.3 to 14.6 × 103 mm3, respectively. Erythrocytes volumes were very large, measuring from 96 to 112 mm.3 The packed cell volumes ranged from 48.3 to 64.2% and the haemoglobin values from 16.2 to 21 gm percent. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio varied from 0.5 to 6.2 and in some animals absolute lymphocyte values were less than 1,200 mm.3 In many animals the percentage of eosinophils was greater than 20%, suggesting parasitic disease.
Sera from 104 adult and 42 fawn pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) from southeastern Idaho were tested against selected livestock pathogens. The numbers positive/numbers tested (% positive) were as follows: bovine virus diarrhea - adults 2/102 (2), fawns 0/41 (0); infectious bovine rhinotracheitis -adults 27/101 (27), fawns 9/42 (22); parainfluenza 3 - adults 79/104 (76), fawns 22/42 (52); bovine adenovirus 7 - adults 42/103 (41), fawns 20/48 (48); bovine adenovirus 3 -adults 11/32 (34), fawns 4/14 (23); Anaplasma marginale - adults 1/104 (1), fawns 1/42 (2). There were no reactors to brucellosis, bluetongue, or epizootic hemorrhagic disease. The prevalence of reactors varied considerably for different locations and for different years.
Experimental infection of neonatal skunks (Mephitis mephitis) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) caused fatal systemic infection. Virus isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between IBRV and the lesions. Histopathologic studies revealed multiple focal necrosis in the liver and the adrenal glands.
Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were experimentally exposed to three avian paramyxoviruses: turkey parainfluenza virus, Yucaipa virus, and two strains of Newcastle disease virus. Aerosol exposure resulted in infection but exposure in food or drinking water rarely or never did. Tracheal swabs contained virus for up to eight days post exposure, cloacal swabs were negative. Transmission to contact birds occurred infrequently. Antibody response was of low titer and short duration. No hemagglutination inhibition activity against these viruses was found in 387 sera collected from red-winged blackbirds and tricolored blackbirds (Agelaius tricolor) trapped in six states.
Necropsies conducted on four young eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) revealed white encrustations adherent to the mucosa of the lips, gums, tongue and oesophagus. The non-glandular stomach was impacted with similar white curd-like material, much of which was adherent to the mucosa. Histopathology revealed fungal mycelia and blastospores invading the stratified squamous epithelium resulting in focal erosion, ulceration and venous thrombosis. A predominantly neutrophilic leucocytic infiltration was produced in intra-epithelial and submucosal tissues. Candida albicans was isolated from the upper alimentary tract lesions of all cases. Failure to thrive on milk diets, prolonged episodes of diarrhoea and antibiotic therapy during hand-rearing were considered to be significant predisposing factors to infection.
Total yeast counts at 20 and 37 C incubation from chlorinated salt water pools containing marine mammals averaged 40 per L and 12 per L, respectively. Candida albicans, the etiological agent of candidiasis in mammals, was found in 32% of 123 water samples although numbers were low (average of 1.2 cells per L). Theyeast was isolated only once from feces from one Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) but was recovered from three fecal samples from an asymptomatic beluga whale (Delphinapteras leucas) which suggested that this animal may be a carrier. Three yeasts (Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and Torulopsis glabrata) associated with human disease accounted for 73% and 88%, respectively, of the 37 C isolates from water and animals. The data indicate the routine presence of potentially pathogenic yeasts in water and various marine mammals. Captive environments characterized by antimicrobial treatment (e.g., chlorine) may provide appropriate conditions for resistant microorganisms, including yeasts, to become opportunistic pathogens in susceptible marine mammals or to become established in others which act as healthy carriers.