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Clostridial myonecrosis is described for the first time in a black bear (Ursus americanus). This fatal condition appeared within three days following immobilization with parenterally administered promazine hydrochloride and phencyclidine hydrochloride. Clostridial myonecrosis may be responsible for other unexplained deaths of animals following recovery from immobilizing drugs. Administration of prophylactic antibiotics to immobilized animals might be considered.
Bronchopneumonia was observed at the necropsy of a North Atlantic pilot whale (Globicephala melaena). The areas of necrosis were well circumscribed clusters, disseminated throughout the left lung. Streptococcus equi was isolated in pure culture from the lung parenchyma, pharynx and pericardial fluid.
Type C botulism was determined to be the cause of an epizootic among waterfowl and shorebirds in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida during May and June of 1979. Several hundred birds, the most common of which were American coots (Fulica americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), common gallinules (Gallinula chloropus), and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were afflicted over about a three-week period. A second smaller outbreak occurred in the same pond in early December of 1979. This is apparently the first time that botulism has been reported in waterbirds of Florida.
Post-mortem examination of a stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorynchus acutus) revealed congested lungs, sanguinous fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and an oral wound. Histopathologic findings were acute necrotizing hepatitis and acute focal bronchopneumonia. Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from the blood and other organs.
Urine, blood and tissue samples from 369 rodents of 13 species were cultured for Leptospira. Four serogroups, including ballum, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, and grippotyphosa, were isolated from 70 rodents (19%) of 9 species.
Seventeen coastal grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) from southwestern British Columbia were captured and immobilized a total of 27 times with etorphine hydrochloride (M99). Effective dosages administered ranged from 0.011 to 0.132 mg/kg. Drug dosages (on a body weight basis) were not significantly related to induction times (R=-.040); however, it appeared that induction could be reduced with an increased dosage. At higher dosage levels respiratory rate was reduced to 2/minute.
Gyrodactylus elegans on goldfish, (Carassius auratus) from a commercial farm were resistant to recommended dosages of dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate. Controlled experiments suggest that a dosage 100 times the commonly recommended minimal dosage (.25 mg/l) was required to remove trematodes. A hypothesis is proposed to account for the development of drug resistant trematodes based on the life cycle of the parasites and continual drug exposure.
Numerous specimens of a mite, Ursicoptes americanus Fain and Johnston, 1970 (Acari: Audycoptidae), were found in skin scrapings from an aged female black bear, Ursus americanus, afflicted with a severe generalized mange. The mite had not been found previously in association with clinical dermatitis. The male, nymph and larva of Ursicoptes americanus, heretofore unknown, are described and the generic diagnosis is amplified. Discovery of the male aids in resolving the questionable taxonomic status of the family Audycoptidae.
Blackhead (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis) was diagnosed as the cause of death for three wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) found in widely separated areas in Mississippi. The turkeys came from areas with high turkey population densities and supplemental feeding programs. Finding three sick and/or dead wild turkeys in a year's period suggests that the disease is more prevalent than generally believed. Recommendations for management programs are presented.
A study was undertaken to ascertain the effects of Trypanosoma murmanensis, on adult longhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) following experimental infection. Blood samples, taken at intervals after infection, indicated a decrease in hematocrit, hemoglobin and total plasma protein levels which did not return to normal for at least 72 days. An increase of lymphocytic cells occurred about 42 and 58 days but reverted later to normal levels. Anemia persisted despite low parasitemias and might be attributed to lytic factors released directly or indirectly by the parasite and/or an inability of the erythropoietic system to respond following the initial blood loss.
Two hundred and eleven of 4404 (4.8%) crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) collected in the winters of 1976-77 and 1977-78 in Essex County, southwestern Ontario, were infected with Diplotriaena tricuspis (Fedtschenko, 1874) Henry and Ozoux, 1909. Prevalence of potentially patent infections was only 2.6%, however, as crows often had nematodes of a single sex only. Intensity was 4.0 (1-74) and was similar in both male and female crows of all age groups. Intensity tended to be higher in young-of-the-year crows than yearlings and adults.
Helminthologic examination of 120 adult and 65 juvenile bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) from Leon County, Florida, during a one-year period revealed seven common (>30% prevalence) species including Raillietina cesticillus, R. colinia, Cheilospirura spinosa, Cyrnea colini, Heterakis bonasae, Tetrameres pattersoni, and Trichostrongylus tenuis. Less frequently found helminths included Hymenolepis sp., Rhabdometra odiosa, Mediorhynchus papillosis, Aproctella stoddardi, Dispharynx nasuta, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Strongyloides avium, and Subulura sp. Juvenile bobwhites had acquired infections of 6 of the 7 common helminths by July and all seven species by August. A shift from a predominance of immature to mature parasites was noted with increasing age of juvenile bobwhites. Patterns of acquisition of common helminths by juvenile bobwhites followed both linear and non-linear (plateau effect) trends when compared to age of the host. By mid-winter total helminth burdens of juvenile birds approached levels in adults. Cheilospirura spinosa, C. colini and T. pattersoni showed marked peaks in transmission between June and September. The two cecal nematodes, H. bonasae and T. tenuis, showed seasonal shifts in relative abundance with H. bonasae predominating during the summer and T. tenuis predominating during the winter. Lesions attributable to helminths were rare and involved minimal tissue damage.
The gross and histopathologic lesions caused by Eimeria cameli in the intestinal tract of a camel (Camelus dromedarius) are described. Post mortem examination showed lesions in the small intestine which had swollen mucosa on which were numerous whitish-grey foci. Histologically, giant schizonts in various developmental stages were seen in the lamina propria of the jejunum. The associated inflammatory cellular response in these areas was predominantly mononuclear and eosinophilic in character.
A total of 213 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from 24 localities in 12 states in the Atlantic Flyway was examined for blood parasites in 1976 and 1977. Hematozoa were present in birds from every collection site from Virginia northward to Maine. Only one infection was detected in birds from North Carolina southward to Florida. Haemoproteus nettionis was the most common parasite, occurring in 56% of the northern wood ducks; Leucocytozoon simondi (20%), Plasmodium circumflexum (6%), and microfilariae (18%) were found also. Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and microfilariae were more commonly observed in juvenile birds than adults. There was no difference in prevalence between male and female ducks. The prevalence of each parasite species varied among collection sites in the northern states.
During 1977 and 1978, more than 21,000 female mosquitoes of 15 species were live-trapped in south Florida where high numbers of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are known to harbor malarial infections. By inoculation of mosquito extracts into uninfected domestic poults, the presence of sporozoites of Plasmodium hermani was demonstrated in Culex nigrapalpus. This mosquito, previously shown to be a competent experimental vector, is believed to be the primary natural vector of wild turkey malaria in Florida.
During the fall of 1966 and spring of 1967,260 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were collected from 13 sites in 8 southeastern states and examined for endoparasites. In order of prevalence, the endoparasites found were: Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci), Raillietina salmoni, Eimeria spp., Longistriata noviberiae, Cittotaenia variabilis, Hasstilesia tricolor, Trichuris leporis, Dermatoxys veligera, Passalurus ambiguus, Dirofilaria scapiceps, Sarcocystis sp., Linguatula serrata, Nematodirus leporis, and Gongylonema pulchrum. Data are presented on prevalence and intensity of infection with each parasite along with information on geographic distribution. Cottontail rabbits in the southeastern United States show a higher level of parasitism than has been reported from other regions, although these higher parasite burdens were not necessarily associated with increased host morbidity.
Four adult (3 male, 1 female) captive-raised, descented, striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were infected experimentally with a field strain (Texas-Tulane) of Trypanosoma cruzi, originally isolated from a naturally-infected dog. Two skunks were injected intravenously with approximately 4.5 × 106 viable T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Two skunks were inoculated per os and per conjunctiuum with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline containing macerated, T. cruzi -infected triatomine intestines and intestinal contents. The skunks had minimal clinical manifestations with no mortalities occurring during 46 days post-exposure. Sera from all skunks were positive at 24 days post-inoculation (PI) by the direct and latex agglutination tests. Blood cultures from the 4 skunks were positive for T. cruzi at day 24 PI and 3 were positive at day 46 PI. All skunks had mild to moderately severe chronic granulomatous myocarditis of the atria and ventricles. Typical T. cruzi amastigotes were present within myocardial fibers in 3 of 4 skunks.
Captive laboratory-held lizards (Agama agama) experimentally inoculated with Dermatophilus congolensis by subcutaneous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes developed pyogranulomatous and necrotic lesions at and around the sites of inoculation. D. congolensis was consistently cultured from the lesions even at 75 days post inoculation. Histopathologic examination of selected organs and tissues showed granulomatous caseous abscesses in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and liver, edema of the dermis and widespread muscular degeneration and necrosis. D. congolensis organisms were associated with these lesions. No lesions or organisms were seen in the epidermis of the skin.
Osteoarthrotic changes are described in the skeleton of an old wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota. Osteophyte formation appeared sufficient to restrict severely the range of motion of the joints. Despite this impairment the wolf ranged over 100 km2 and killed a minimum of one or two adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during a 6-week period between capture and death.
Two hundred sixty-five black bears (Ursus americanus) from northcentral Idaho were examined serologically over a five-year period for antibodies against selected infectious disease agents. The number of positive serum samples per number of sera tested and percent positive for each infectious agent is: tularemia, 65/340 (19); brucellosis, 18/332 (5); toxoplasmosis, 23/303 (8); leptospirosis, 2/196 (1); trichinosis, 16/122 (13); Q-fever, 13/210 (6); St. Louis encephalitis, 3/340 (1); western equine encephalitis, 4/334 (1); Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 6/282 (2). Black bears may serve as an indicator for infection in other wildlife, domestic animals and humans in the area.
The preservation of wildlife is of increasing importance in many countries in Africa but, due to hazards of possible transmission of disease from wild to domesticated species, the interests of the conservationist can conflict with those of the livestock owner. Foremost among transmissible diseases common to many species of both wild and domesticated animals is foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The effects of FMD vaccination on three important wildlife species, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx) and impala (Aepyceros melampus), are described. The pattern of response in all three species was similar to that of cattle but of a lower order. The implications are discussed and a vaccination protocol is suggested.
Malignant Catarrhal Fever was diagnosed in an Indian Gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus), a Barasingha Deer, (Cervus duuauceli duuauceli), and four Javan Banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park between July, 1976 and January, 1979. Three of the four Banteng lived adjacent to an exhibit in which wildebeest were born at 29, )8 and 82 days prior to the Banteng's deaths. The disease was characterized by pyrexia, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, dyspnea and rhinitis. Mortality was 100%. Post mortem lesions in the respiratory, digestive, lymphoid and nervous systems were erosions, ulcers, necrosis and hemorrhage. Microscopic lesions included lymphoid necrosis, reticuloendothelial hyperplasia and diffuse vasculitis. All virus isolation attempts were negative.
A painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) which died in captivity had marked necrosis in the liver and lungs with numerous intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes and respiratory epithelial cells. Electron microscopy revealed herpesvirus-like particles in cells in affected tissues.
A cell line derived from channel catfish ovary tissue was compared with the brown bullhead (BB) cell line for their respective abilities to replicate and detect channel catfish virus (CCV). The channel catfish ovary cell line (CCO) produced cytopathic effects (CPE) more rapidly and detected CCV at higher dilutions than did the BB cell line. Production of CCV was more rapid in CCO cells than in BB cells, but the peak titers of the two lines were not significantly different. The CCO cell line was shown to be the more sensitive cell line for CCV research and diagnostics.