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During an outbreak of a herpesvirus infection in juvenile harbor seals, 11 out of 23 seals died. The duration of the disease in these 11 animals varied from 1–6 days. Nasal discharge, inflammation of the oral mucosa, vomiting, diarrhea and fever up to 40 C were observed in the first days of the disease. In later stages coughing, anorexia and lethargy occurred. Severe necrosis of the liver and interstitial pneumonia were the most striking histopathological findings.
During the 12-yr period, 1973–1984, 243 isolates of Pasteurella multocida were recovered or identified from specimens submitted for plague tests. Of the isolates, 79% were from rodents, 10% from lagomorphs, and 7% from carnivores; eight isolates were recovered from pools of rodent or carnivore fleas, and two were recovered from cat-bite wounds of human patients. No correlations of host or geographic sources, season, or biotypic or serotypic characteristics were found. Of the rodent strains serotyped, most were found to be serotypes 1A or 3A, which suggests a possible epizootiologic role for rodents in outbreaks of avian cholera that commonly involve these serotypes.
Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis was diagnosed in seven of 25 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in east-central Alberta. The infection varied from mild, where only microscopic lesions were seen, to severe, where gross lesions of grayish-white nodules were observed in the lung parenchyma. Mild lesions were restricted to the lung, while severe lesions extended to the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by a centrally located fungal spherule, surrounded by granulomatous inflammation. The morphology of the fungal spherules was consistent with that of Emmonsia crescens. By electron microscopy, the fungal cells had an outer thick fibrillar wall and an inner cytoplasm filled with large lipid vacuoles with relatively few mitochondria, ribosomes or glycogen inclusions. The absence of endosporulation and budding suggested that each fungal cell in the lung represented a separate inhaled spore. Infection was by inhalation, nevertheless adiaspores may disseminate to the regional lymph nodes.
Blood smears from 54 platypuses in southeastern Australia were examined by light microscopy. Protozoa were found in erythrocytes in 53 platypuses; all infections were sparse. A few parasites were found in leukocytes. Intraerythrocytic forms examined by electron microscopy contained vacuoles, micronemes, rhoptries and cytostomes with double unit membranes. Merozoites were identified in leukocytes. The parasites were identified as Theileria omithorhynchi Mackerras, 1959.
The feces of 212 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) collected in central New Mexico from October 1982 to January 1983 and from October 1983 to January 1984 were examined to determine the prevalence of coccidial oocysts. One hundred forty-five granulomatous nodules from the viscera of 64 cranes and samples of lung, small intestine, and large intestine from 58 birds were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy for the presence of intestinal or extraintestinal coccidiosis. Of the 212 fecal samples, 160 (75%) were positive for oocysts of Eimeria, including E. gruis in 139 (66%) and E. reichenowi in 118 (56%) of the samples. Eimeria bosquei sp. n. was found in two (∼1%) of the fecal samples. Subspheroid to ovoid oocysts of this new species are 19–27 × 14–19 (23.6 × 17.1) μm with ovoid sporocysts 10–14 × 7–11 (12.3 × 9.3) μm. A rough, heavily pitted outer oocyst wall, sporocyst residuum, Stieda and substieda bodies, and multiple polar bodies are present. The polar bodies, of varying sizes, always aggregate at the apex of the sporulated oocyst. An Adelina sp. was found in one (0.5%) crane. Coccidian developmental stages were found in the epithelium and lamina propria of the small and large intestine. Disseminated granulomatous nodules were found in the oral mucosa, esophagus, heart, descending aorta, liver, small intestine, mesenteries, and parietal peritoneum. Unique cell types resembling coccidian asexual and sexual stages were observed by light and electron microscopy in some of the nodules.
Samples of tongue or diaphragm from 2,056 black bears harvested in Pennsylvania during the 1981–1983 hunting seasons were examined for larvae of Trichinella spiralis by peptic digestion. Sixteen males and 21 females were infected. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.8%. Infected animals were distributed widely throughout the range of the bear in Pennsylvania. In samples from infected bears, the geometric mean density of muscle larvae was 7.8 per g of tissue (LPG). There were neither sex- nor age-related differences in prevalence or intensity of infection. Virtually all bears harvested in Pennsylvania are consumed as food, which often is shared widely among hunters, their friends and relatives. Furthermore, high densities of larvae occurred in some bears (i.e., 300, 348, 465, 512, 555, and 912 LPG). Thus, a basis for potential, single-source outbreaks of severe human trichinosis exists.
Samples of muscle from 4,773 specimens of 18 species of wild mammals from Ontario were examined for Trichinella. One of 12 mink (Mustela vison), 83 of 1,821 fisher (Martes pennanti) and 68 of 1,980 marten (Martes americana) had T. spiralis. Prevalences of infections by Trichinella were determined for fisher and marten from the Algonquin region, over a 10-yr period. Prevalences ranged from 0.9–9.2% in fisher and 1.3–8.7% in marten indicating that the parasite is well-established in the region. Prevalences of Trichinella increased with age of both fisher and marten. Intensities determined for the 1981–1982 sample ranged from 0.4–15.8 larvae/g for fisher and 22.4–159.7 larvae/g for marten. Higher intensities were not correlated with older hosts. Fisher and marten appeared to be the key hosts maintaining Trichinella in the Algonquin region, but transmission dynamics were unclear. Transmission may include an unidentified small rodent or other host and natural carrion-feeding.
Two size-groups of dorsal-spined, first-stage, nematode larvae were found in feces of woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin), in Alberta from 1976–1982. Larvae from caribou feces in northeastern Alberta were 451 ± 17 μm in length, while those from west-central Alberta were 362 ± 18 μm in length. Larvae collected from west-central Alberta developed to the infective stage, experimentally, in the terrestrial gastropod Triodopsis multilineata (Say) and were infective to captive mule deer fawns, Odocoileus h. hemionus (Rafinesque). Adult nematodes, identified as Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (Hobmaier and Hobmaier, 1934), were recovered from the skeletal muscles of the mule deer.
Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species included: Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Echinostoma revolution, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp. 1, Hymenolepis sp. 2, Sobolevicanthus gracilis, Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus, Amidostomum acutum, Echinuria sp., Epomidiostomum crami, Hystrichis varispinosus, Rusguniella arctica, and Tetrameres sp. Fimbriarioides sp. occurred predominantly in ducks from south-central Chihuahua, Mexico. The distributions for the other 24 species of the helminths were not significantly different among the four collecting areas. The helminth fauna for the 32 complete specimens and 97 intestinal tracts was distributed relatively evenly among the hosts with a calculated mean evenness of 0.77 ± 0.15 and 0.89 ± 0.03 respectively. The parasite fauna was more similar to those of the black duck Anas rubripes Brewster of eastern North America (53%), the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (L.) (49%), and the mottled duck, Anas fulvigula Ridgway, from Florida (45%), than to the green-winged teal, Anas crecca (L.) (36%), the gadwall, Anas strepera (L.) (30%), and the American wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin (26%), collected in the Southwest.
Intercurrent canine distemper and Tyzzer's disease were diagnosed in a mature raccoon (Procyon lotor) submitted for necropsy. Clinical, gross and microscopic findings characteristic of canine distemper virus (CDV), included ataxia, dyspnea, suppurative conjunctivitis, interstitial pneumonitis and generalized lymphocytolysis. Inclusion bodies typical of CDV infection were present in many epithelial tissues. Acute multifocal hepatic necrosis and acute segmental necrotizing enteritis were attributed to the presence of Bacillus piliformis organisms in these lesions, confirmed by special stains and electron microscopy. This is apparently the first reported case of Tyzzer's disease in a raccoon.
Thyroids from 213 adult herring gulls of both sexes were collected during incubation from nine colonies in the Great Lakes basin of eastern North America between 1974 and 1983, and from a single colony in the Bay of Fundy from 1977 to 1982. Qualitative and quantitative histological assessment revealed that the majority of the gulls from the Great Lakes basin suffered from goiter. These thyroids had a greater mass than those from the Bay of Fundy, and were microfollicular and frequently hyperplastic. The histopathology was similar to that previously observed in Pacific salmon from the Great Lakes. These findings are consistent with a forage fish-borne goitrogenic etiology other than, or in addition to, iodine deficiency. Temporal and spatial differences in the severity of thyroid dysfunction are consistent with the hypothesis that polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are responsible for the goiter development and thyrotoxic effects observed in herring gulls from the Great Lakes area.
Dead or moribund raptors (n = 75) representing 11 species were collected between 1971 and 1981 from various locations in Florida. Samples of brain, muscle, liver and adipose tissue were analyzed for DDT, DDE, DDD, dieldrin, and PCB's. Detectable concentrations of DDT or its metabolites were found in 100% of all samples of muscle and liver, and 77% all samples of brain. Dieldrin was determined to be present in 91%, 93%, 87% and 78% of all samples of brain, muscle, liver and adipose tissue, respectively. Lethal or hazardous concentrations of dieldrin were found in brain samples from three birds, but DDT and PCB's were present at sublethal concentrations. When species were grouped according to their dietary habits, it was not possible to identify any trends in pesticide concentrations.
A serologic survey was conducted on 628 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 1976 and 1979–1980. Tests for antibodies to the etiologic agents of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), parainfluenza 3 (PI3), leptospirosis, and brucellosis produced positive results of 15%, 20%, 3% and 0%, respectively. Adult deer had significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to IBR virus and PI3 virus than fawns. These data provide a basis for monitoring these disease agents in Minnesota's white-tailed deer.
Exposure of pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) in western Nebraska in 1983 to selected livestock pathogens was examined by serology and attempted virus isolation. Antibodies were present to the agents of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. There were no serologic reactors to Brucella, and attempts to isolate the viruses of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease were negative.
Eight captive wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were injected with xylazine hydrochloride on two occasions during March and April 1984. Animals were grouped into a modified Latin square design and were given either successive injections of yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to antagonize the sedative effects of xylazine hydrochloride or permitted an unantagonized recovery. Induction times ranged from 3 to 26 min with excited and wild animals requiring a supplementary dose. Time until walking was significantly (P < 0.005) shorter in the group given successive injections (given i.v.) of the reversal drugs yohimbine hydrochloride (0.15 mg/kg) and 4-AP (0.30 mg/kg) than those animals during unantagonized recoveries. Marked increases in heart rate and respiratory rate were observed in animals within 3 min after successive injections of yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-AP. There was no occurrence of convulsions and animals did not relapse to profound sedation. Slight muscle tremors were observed in one animal which received a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of 4-AP. This drug combination can reduce markedly the duration of recovery from xylazine hydrochloride-induced sedation in wapiti.
A mixture of 120 mg ketamine hydrochloride (KHCL)/20 mg xylazine hydrochloride (XHCL)/ml was used to immobilize 37 wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) 46 times. Observations were recorded during 37 trials that included kittens, adult females, and adult males. Dosages were based on 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg estimated body weight. Actual doses for 24 lions requiring a single injection for immobilization ranged from 4.7–15.8 mg KHCL/kg and 0.8–2.6 mg XHCL/kg. Induction, duration, and recovery times did not differ (P > 0.05) between the sex and age classes. Two kittens were overdosed with the drug combination, but the effects were not life threatening. Eleven other lions, nine of which were initially underdosed, required additional injections of the drug combination for safe handling. Immobilization was characterized initially by semi-consciousness, open eyelids, pupillary dilation, and muscle rigidity. Later, most lions appeared unconscious, muscles relaxed, and breathing slowed considerably. No convulsions or hypersalivation occurred. The KHCL/XHCL mixture given at approximately 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg body weight proved useful for immobilizing wild mountain lions for research purposes. Suggestions for care of immobilized cats are included.