The lesions of naturally occurring elaeophorosis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied. Arterial changes caused by adult Elaeophora schneideri occurred mainly in cephalic arteries and were characterized by circumferential intimal thickening, disruption of the internal elastic lamina, and verminous thrombosis. Microfilariae caused focal necrosis and fibrosis in the myocardium, but produced only minor changes in other tissues. Radiographic studies indicated that E. schneideri can cause impairment of the cephalic arterial circulation in white-tailed deer. Eleven of 14 (78%) infected deer had oral food impactions, with sublingual impactions being most common. Seven deer with impactions had other oral pathologic conditions, such as gingivitis, loose or absent premolar and/or molar teeth, and remodeling and/or lysis of mandibular bone. The evidence indicates a relation between food impactions and infection by E. schneideri in white-tailed deer, but no definitive connection was established.
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