The mean time to arousal (MTA), the mean time to sternal recumbency (MTSR) and the mean time to walking (MTW) were measured in 10 adult guineafowl (Numida meleagris) immobilized with a combination of xylazine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg). Yohimbine hydrochloride, given intravenously (1 mg/kg) at 40 min after the injection of the xylazine-ketamine, significantly shortened the MTA, the MTSR and the MTW compared to saline controls. Increasing the dosage of yohimbine to 2.5 mg/kg did not shorten recovery when compared to the lower dosage. No adverse effects were noted at either dosage of yohimbine. Yohimbine appeared to be a safe and effective antagonist of xylazine-ketamine immobilization in guineafowl and may prove useful in other avian species to produce more rapid recovery from xylazine-ketamine immobilization, xylazine sedation or xylazine overdosage.
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