Captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) were given 2.2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride intramuscularly resulting in profound sedation in 9.1 ± 0.6 min (mean ± SE). Heart rate was 42.0 ±1.0 beats per minute and respiratory rate was 20.1 ± 1.6 respirations per minute during sedation. A variety of manipulations could be performed on sedated animals in relative safety. Thirty min after xylazine administration, the animals were given either 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine hydrochloride or 5% dextrose solution intravenously causing recovery in 5.3 ± 1.0 and 97.1 ± 14.0 min, respectively (P < 0.001).
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