Of blood films examined from 170 specimens of 15 Chamaeleo spp. in Tanzania, three C. dilepis had an intracytoplasmic inclusion within monocytes. One of the lizards was maintained in captivity and was sequentially bled over a 55 day period. At 46 days, a second type of inclusion was occasionally seen within monocytes. The lizard became ill and was euthanatized on day 55. All circulating monocytes were found to have either one or both types of inclusions. Histologic examination of multiple tissues demonstrated similar inclusions within macrophages in the spleen and liver. Transmission electron microscopic examination of monocytes revealed the presence of a chlamydia-like organism and pox-like virus. These pathogens have not been reported previously in chameleons, nor has a combined infection of circulating monocytes with these two pathogens been reported for any animal.
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Vol. 26 • No. 4