Non-caseating granulomas containing larval spirurid nematodes (Spiroxys contorta) were observed in the gastric submucosa and muscularis externa of two pallid spiny softshells (Apalone spinifera pallida) from northcentral Texas (USA). In early granulomas, nematodes were not surrounded by a fibrous capsule but in older, mature granulomas, a fibrous capsule was present. Granulomas without nematodes also were present.
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Vol. 29 • No. 3