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The dynamics of a natural focus of L. pomona in skunks and opossums were investigated by live trapping for a period of 18 months, followed by removal trapping for 2 months. Leptospira pomona was isolated from 8 (10.6%) of 75 skunks, 3 (3.1%) of 98 opossums and 1 of 21 feral cats. Serologic reactions to L. pomona were found in 9 (28.1%) of 32 skunks and 3 (3.01%) of 98 opossums tested. Leptospira pomona was isolated from 1 to 3 times from naturally infected free-living skunks during a maximum of 77 days. Among the interesting correlations of ecologic data with infectivity was a significant relationship between both isolations and serologic titers for the colder and wetter parts of the year in skunks; no such correlation was found for opossum infections and titers. The habits of animals shedding leptospires were found to be related to specific parts of the research area. The authors conclude from the data that skunks may be able to maintain a nidus of L. pomona.
Quail bronchitis is an acute, contagious, respiratory disease of bobwhite quail. Tracheal rales, coughing, sneezing and mortality over 50 per cent is often observed in young infected birds. Quail bronchitis virus infects chickens and turkeys with no signs of disease. A similar agent, called chicken embryo lethal orphan virus, has been isolated from embryonating chicken eggs. Quail experimentally infected with chicken embryo lethal orphan virus have developed bronchitis. Airborne, mechanical and contact transmission of quail bronchitis virus is suspected. Diagnosis is based on signs, lesions of the respiratory system, and isolation and serological identification of the virus. No specific treatment is known. Additional research on this disease, both as it affects captive quail and the wild or released quail, is needed.
The persistence of cutaneous lesions of avian pox virus infection in a yellow-shafted flicker (Colaptes auratus) over a period of 13 months is described. Extensive transmission experiments revealed strict host specificity for the. flicker virus. Flicker-to-flicker transmission was achieved, both by inoculation and by cage contact. All attempts to isolate the virus were unsuccessful. The diagnosis of pox virus infection was confirmed by electronmicroscopy.
Changes in the electrophoretic distribution of plasma proteins were noted in wild animals with a variety of parasitic and infectious diseases. This technique may be useful in screening for disease before death or sacrifice of animals.
Clostridium botulinum, type Cβ was identified as the causative organism in an epornitic which occurred on a tidal estuary in New Jersey. Approximately 1,000 individuals of twelve species representing five families of birds were intoxicated. Muskrats and killifish were also affected. Seven species previously unreported as affected by botulinus intoxication were recorded. The role of the food web in the epizootiology of botulinus intoxication and the intraspecific relationship between the killifish and Least Terns in the continuance of the outbreak is discussed.
The data herein reported reveal the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in a small number of mammals collected on three Iowa farms during October, 1964. Serologic evidence of past or persistent infection was noted in the feral house cat, gray and red fox and the opossum. Specimens found positive ranged in titer from 1:64 to 1:1024. Numbers in each category are insufficient to estimate general prevalence of infection in wild mammals in Iowa.