Larvae of certain species of blowflies (Calliphoridae) cause myiasis in amphibians which may result in significant mortality, yet there are few reports from North America. In this study, we observed primary myiasis in a population of juvenile eastern American toads (Bufo americanus americanus) collected during May–July 1998 from southeastern Wisconsin (USA). Nine (6%) of 140 toads were infected by the green blow fly (Bufolucilia silvarum) with a mean intensity of 10.5±7.2 (range=1–24). Weekly parasite prevalence and mean intensity remained low, ranging from 0–20% and 2±1.4 to 14±6, respectively. We found: 1) flies lay eggs on healthy toads, 2) eggs hatch with first instar maggots penetrating under the skin, 3) maggots develop to mature third instars within 5–7 days, 4) maggots leave the host and form pupa within 8–11 days of hatching, and 5) maggots pupate within 7–9 days at room temperature. All infected toads died within 1–2 wk as a result of the infection. The low prevalence observed in this study and other reports of this species from mammalian and bird carcasses indicated that B. silvarum is probably a facultative parasite of toads and other amphibians in the United States. This is the first report of B. silvarum causing myiasis in Wisconsin amphibians and the first report in eastern American toads in the United States.
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Vol. 38 • No. 3