Hunter-killed red deer (n=68; Cervus elaphus) harvested from the Italian provinces of Bologna (Emilia Romagna) and Pistoia (Tuscany) (44°00′N 11°00′E) from October 2001 to January 2002 were examined for protostrongylid larvae. Twenty-eight animals (41%) had protostrongylid larvae in feces, lungs, and inguinal and iliac lymph nodes. Of these 28 animals, 20 were adults (71%), four were yearlings (14%), and four were calves (14%). Shape, length, width, and the location to the nematodes were consistent with Elaphostrongylus cervi, which has not been previously reported in Italy.
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