The gastrointestinal parasites of baboons have been well characterized from savannah and desert habitats, but little is known about their gastrointestinal parasites in forest habitats. From May to June 2004, we collected 41 fecal samples from free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) within the forested Kibale National Park, Uganda. Samples were examined to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in this forest dwelling population of olive baboons. The prevalence of nematodes identified from fecal flotation was Oesophagostomum sp. (85%), Trichostrongylus sp. (22%), Trichuris sp. (46%), Strongyloides sp. (44%), Ternidens sp. (5%), Abbreviata sp. (2%), and Molineus sp. (2%). Flotation techniques also recovered unidentified eggs, probably of hookworm origin (22%). No parasite eggs were recovered by sedimentation of eight samples. Coproculture techniques using 13 of the 41 samples recovered larvae from Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus sp. The high prevalence of nematodes recovered in this study seems to support previous theories of high nematode infections in forested habits.
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