Ranavirus is a double-stranded DNA virus associated with amphibian, fish and reptile die-offs worldwide. International trade of live animals farmed for human consumption, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), plays a key role in spreading the pathogen. In Brazil, ranavirus has only been reported in captive bullfrog farms. We found infected tadpoles of both native species and the American bullfrog in the wild, and a case of mass mortality of amphibians and fish potentially associated with ranavirus. Dead animals presented skin ulcerations, hemorrhages, and edemas. We also found an overall prevalence of 37% of the amphibian chytrid in the area, and two bullfrog tadpoles were co-infected with both pathogens. We suggest that the interaction between the two pathogens should be investigated to improve global conservation of ectothermic vertebrates.
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Vol. 55 • No. 4