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6 January 2020 FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)
Jack Rhyan, Matthew McCollum, Thomas Gidlewski, Moshe Shalev, Gordon Ward, Brenda Donahue, Jonathan Arzt, Carolina Stenfeldt, Fawzi Mohamed, Pauline Nol, Ming Deng, Samia Metwally, Mo Salman
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Abstract

The only known outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife in the US occurred in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California in 1924–25. There is little recorded information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease in deer in that outbreak. In this experimental study, we compared the susceptibility of mule deer to FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O to that of cattle (Bos taurus). We also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of FMDV serotype O in mule deer and cattle, and assessed conventional laboratory tests in their ability to detect FMDV in mule deer. Two mule deer and one steer were each infected by intraepithelial tongue inoculation with 10,000 bovine tongue infective doses of FMDV, strain O1 Manisa. The inoculated steer and deer were kept in the same room with contact animals of both species. Exposed contact animals were moved to rooms with unexposed animals after becoming febrile. All mule deer (n=14) and cattle (n=6) developed clinical signs and lesions consistent with FMDV infection. Deer had a high prevalence of myocarditis and high mortality. Virus was transmitted between mule deer, from cattle to mule deer, and from mule deer to cattle. Virus and antibodies against nonstructural FMDV proteins in mule deer and cattle were detected by conventional laboratory tests. Virus shedding was detected by PCR and virus isolation up to 9 d postexposure in deer.

© Wildlife Disease Association 2020
Jack Rhyan, Matthew McCollum, Thomas Gidlewski, Moshe Shalev, Gordon Ward, Brenda Donahue, Jonathan Arzt, Carolina Stenfeldt, Fawzi Mohamed, Pauline Nol, Ming Deng, Samia Metwally, and Mo Salman "FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 56(1), 93-104, (6 January 2020). https://doi.org/10.7589/2019-03-059
Received: 8 March 2019; Accepted: 30 April 2019; Published: 6 January 2020
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