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Physiologic values obtained from 10 stone sheep (Ovis dalli stonei) were reported, providing a start in establishing base line values for the species. The influence of excitability, diet, and stress of the sheep at sampling upon certain values was recognized.
Pharyngeal botfly (Cephenemyia spp.) larvae were found in 76 (17%) of 446 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Welder Refuge, San Patricio County, coastal south Texas (1961–1968). Seventy-one of the 76 infections by 2nd- and 3rd-stage larvae occurred in deer collected during fall and winter, suggesting a winter generation of approximately 6 months. The highest prevalence occurred in deer from brushy plant communities with a high, relatively continuous canopy. A higher prevalence in mature males (74%) compared with females (29%) during winter was correlated with behavioral differences between sexes during the breeding season.
Seven Canada Goose goslings and one Snow Goose gosling died suddenly and were presented for diagnosis. Gross and microscopic lesions of hepatitis were observed in all birds. A virus was isolated in embryonated goose eggs which, on the basis of complement fixation and immunofluorescence tests, was identified as goose hepatitis virus. The epornitiology of this virus is discussed.
The lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus, was found in 240 (29.8%) of 806 white-tailed deer collected in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The infection was not found in deer of Tennessee and St. Croix of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Lungworm infections varied significantly with season of collection, age, and sex of the host.
Two wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) removed from a small pool in the River Clyde, Scotland, had gross abnormalities of the splenic tissue. Histopathology showed that they both possessed multiple splenic cysts, which in view of the close similarities in the scale readings of the two fish, and the rarity of the condition, suggested that both were from the same spawning, and that the cysts were congenital.
A renal neoplasm with the pathologic characteristics of a nephroblastoma was found in a striped bass (Morone saxatilis) taken in Fisher's Island Sound, New York. The fish acted normally and seemed unaffected by the tumor.
A presumed second human case of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) approximately 175 miles north of the Everglades National Park, prompted an epizootiological survey to document the presence and distribution of VEE virus in small mammals throughout the state. Sera from 339 small mammals from 25 counties in Florida were tested for hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against VEE, eastern encephalitis (EE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses. Sera reactive to VEE in HI tests were also examined for neutralizing antibody to VEE and EE. Significant HI and neutralizing antibody to VEE virus was detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor), cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) and an opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) in various habitats along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts of Florida. These data indicated that (1) VEE virus may be widespread in south central Florida; perhaps endemic in Indian River County (2) Raccoons may be excellent indicators of VEE activity in a statewide arbovirus monitoring system.
The effects of individual variation, season and parasite activity on the levels of the four major immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2, were analyzed in four adult Rocky Mountain bighorn ewes. Individual variation was significant for all immunoglobulin classes. Seasonal effects were detected in the levels of IgG1. The fecal count of Protostrongylus larvae was inversely related to IgG2 concentrations and the fecal Nematodirus count was inversely related to IgA. Muellerius and ccccidia did not demonstrate significant relationships with circulating levels of any of the immunoglobulin classes.
A box turtle, Terrapene Carolina, was found to have 3 coelomic, extra-oviducal shelled eggs. Two of these were attached to the liver by overgrowth of its connective tissue, presumably in response to inflammation induced by the eggs. Yolk material from the third (unattached) egg yielded pure cultures of the bacterium, Micrococcus tetragenus. Cultures of albumen and yolk were sterile from one of the four shelled oviducal eggs present.
Clams of the Genus Sphaerium were collected on an island where Leptospira interrogans serotype pomona, infection was enzootic in deer. Leptospires were isolated from both dry, estivating and aquatic, active clams. The isolates did not resemble parasitic leptospires antigenically, and they did not produce disease in gerbils. Clams excreted leptospires into water. Uninfected clams collected from a different source were exposed to serotype pomona in their aquarium. Serotype pomona was recovered from the water after 2 days. Leptospires isolated from fluid in the mantle cavity, digestive gland, and other tissues of the clams appeared to be antigenically different from L. pomona and from each other, and to resemble serotype biflexa Patoc I, serotype semaranga, and a New England strain of water leptospire. It is possible that the molluscan environment modified the expression of genes directing the structure of surface antigens of serotype pomona, and that this modification was stable.
Forty-two visibly ill or dead pen-raised Indian red junglefowl were examined for parasites and diseases. The following disease conditions and parasites were identified; VIRUS(?)—visceral tumors; FUNGUS—Candida albicans; PROTOZOA — Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, E. mivati, E. tenella, Histomonas meleagridis; CESTODA — Raillientina tetragona; NEMATODA — Ascaridia galli, Capillaria obsignata, Heterakis gallinarum; Filiariidea; ACARINA (mites) — Megninia sp. Coccidiosis was the most important problem. Junglefowl appear to be susceptible to most diseases and parasites of domestic chickens.
Six species of wild birds were studied for their suitability as sentinels to detect the transmission of EEE and WEE viruses in the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland. Blood specimens from birds were tested for virus and for neutralizing antibodies in tubes of primary hamster kidney cell culture. Virus isolations and serological data from bobwhite quail, white-throated sparrows, red-winged blackbirds and English sparrows indicated that transmission of WEE virus began in late July, 1968, and preceded the onset of EEE virus transmission by several weeks and that transmission of both viruses continued into November. Of the species tested, bobwhite quail and white-throated sparrows survived best. Selection and use of wild birds as sentinels are discussed.
Leptospira pomona was isolated from the urine and renal tissue of a subadult male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus). Serum from the sea lion agglutinated L. pomona to a titer of 1:10,000. There was marked interstitial nephritis with lymphocytic and plasmacytic infiltration. Widespread degenerative changes occurred in the tubular epithelium of the kidney, but the glomeruli appeared to be spared. Erosions and hemorrhages were present in the buccal and gastric mucosa. Hematologic abnormalities were poikilocytosis, numerous normoblasts, and leukopenia with a shift to the left. It is believed that this isolation of a leptospire is the first described from a marine mammal.
The ascaroid nematodes Contracaecum spiculigerum and C. multipapillatum were recovered in large numbers from the proventriculus of four species and 66 individuals of pelicaniform birds collected in Connecticut, Florida and South Dakota. Both species of nematodes were commonly observed to penetrate the mucosal wall of the proventriculus where they caused gross hemorrhages and ulcerations. Microscopic lesions consisted of compression atrophy of the glandular mucosa with generalized inflammatory infiltrations. Contracaecum may serve a beneficial role in the digestive physiology of cormorants by crawling through and breaking up ingested fish which facilitates the entrance of digestive enzymes. Wild-captured nestling cormorants held in captivity until maturity lost their nematode infections in three months suggesting that Contracaecum has a short life span.
A field survey of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus domesticus Linn., for the filarial nematode, Splendidofilaria passerina, was conducted in Illinois during May 1968 to May 1969. Fifty-four (19.9%) of 271 birds of both sexes were infected with adult male and/or female worms within the walls of the pulmonary arteries. A mean of 5.8 and range of 1–23 worms per bird were recovered. Forty (14.8%) sparrows were positive for microfilariae in smears of lung blood, but there was no correlation between adult worm burden and numbers of microfilariae per 100 microscopic fields. Eleven birds infected only with female worms were negative for microfilariae. Patent infections were first observed in immature sparrows during September and October, which suggests an approximate 3 month prepatent developmental period of the adult worm. The incidence of infection remained high throughout most of the year, with a decline during the months of June through August. The data indicate increased infection in the autumn, possibly related to the activity of an unknown vector during the summer months. The walls of the pulmonary arteries of heavily infected sparrows were grossly thickened and enlarged, with worms occupying most of the tissue and occasionally extending free into the lung and heart. Microscopic lesions included fibrosis, necrosis and stenosis of the pulmonary artery. Accumulations of foreign body giant cells were observed surrounding dead worms, but there were no reactive cells around living worms.
The kidney, liver, intestine, brain, and muscle of live infected channel catfish were assayed for channel catfish virus in channel catfish gonad cell cultures. Sampling was done at 24-hour intervals for 120 hours. The virus was first detected in the kidneys of channel catfish 24 hours after inoculation. Channel catfish virus was also isolated at sequential time intervals from the intestine, liver, brain, and muscle. Virus was detected in the kidney, liver, and intestine but not the brain of the fish that died 70 hours after infection.
Trichomoniasis resulting from infection by Trichomonas gallinae was observed in 12 laboratory reared white-crowned pigeons (Columba leucocephala). A field survey of nestlings in the Florida Keys revealed a prevalence of 88% T. gallinae carriers but no evidence of trichomoniasis could be found among the wild birds.