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A vise-like apparatus consisting of movable plates with “teeth”, which can be clamped to a table top, has been found to be of value as an aid in securing the heads of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for examination for meningeal worms (Pneumostrongylus tenuis). This apparatus also has been valuable as an adjunct to necropsy procedures when studying various types of cranial injuries, cerebral abscesses, and for examining the turbinates for nasal bots (Cephenemyia phobifera).
Blood samples were obtained from 54 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), 30 lesser scaup (A. affinis), 3 ring-necks (A. collaris), and 3 buffleheads (Bucephala albeola), which were wintering on Chesapeake Bay. These blood samples were used for: red blood cell counts (cans. 2.56 × 106/mm3; scaup 2.45 × 106/mm3; ring-necks 2.50 × 106/mm3; bufflehead 2.64 × 106/mm3), packed cell volume (cans. 52.2%; scaup 57.1%; ring-neck 49.1%; buffleheads 54.3%), total protein (cans. 4.4 g/100 ml; scaup 4.4 g/100 ml; ring-neck 3.5 g/100 ml; bufflehead 3.8 g/100 ml), erythrocyte measurements, and electrophoretic analysis of plasma and serum. Variations between individuals of the same species and sex were slight but a possible difference between male and female erythrocyte numbers and packed cell volumes was evident in the canvasback and scaup samples.
Studies were conducted on 104 striped skunks, 97 raccoons, 64 opossums, 10 woodchucks, 5 feral cats, and 1 muskrat. Animals were trapped on an undeveloped forest and swamp area in Eastern Maryland. Leptospiral agglutinins were demonstrated in 62% of the skunks, 15% of opossums and 50% of the raccoons. Leptospiral serogroup members isolated from hosts were as follows: skunks — icterohaetnorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, ballum, and autumnalis; opossum — icterohaemorrhagiae and ballum; raccoon — icterohaemorrhagiae. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one raccoon. Significant complement-fixing antibodies for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever group of rickettsia were demonstrated in 15% of 102 skunks, 18% of 94 raccoons, 40% of 10 woodchucks and in only 1 of 54 opossums. Isolates of a pox virus which appears to be a new type were obtained from upper respiratory tissues of two raccoons. Significant antibody titers for the isolated pox virus were demonstrated in 23% of 92 raccoon sera. Two isolates serologically related to infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus were isolated from pooled liver and spleen tissues of two skunks. Sera from 59 of 94 skunks had neutralizing antibody to the ICH isolate. Examinations of sera for antibody to influenza viruses A and B were negative. Complement-fixing antibodies for toxoplasmosis were demonstrated in 10 of 80 raccoons, and 3 of 7 woodchucks, but not in other species. Three types of microfilariae were seen in bloods of 29 of 104 skunks, 3 of 97 raccoons, and 1 of 61 opossums. During dissection of animals the guinea worms Dracunculus fuelleborni and Dracunculus insignis were found in three opossums and one raccoon respectively. Lung flukes (Paragonimus kellicoti, syn. P. rudis) were found in three skunks.
Oral infection of rodents with Pasteurella pestis has been demonstrated with both fully virulent and avirulent strains. Sustained rodent plague epizootics have been initiated and maintained in the absence of the classical flea vector. Transmission was due to cannibalism of the dying rodents by their healthy cagemates. Oral infection is considered to provide a plausible mechanism for the persistence of plague in an area where conditions are temporarily unsuitable for flea transmission.
Serum proteins of the California ground squirrel (Spcrmophilus beecheyi) were analyzed by standard electrophoretic methods. Results were presented in terms of total protein, albumin and albumin-globulin (A/G) ratios. Boundaries between globulin fractions were too obscure to warrant analyses of these elements individually.Total protein means differed in squirrels live-trapped at two locations, and live-trapped squirrels had higher total protein levels than squirrels shot. The mean A/G ratios were also significantly different between locations but not between shot and trapped squirrels. Mean total protein and A/G levels in animals with coccidia in the large intestine were the same as from those without coccidia. There was no correlation between adrenal gland weight and total protein or A/G levels.
The finding of cutaneous fibropapillomas in migratory barren-ground caribou, Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus (L.), in Canada is reported for the first time. No transmission studies were carried out to determine if the neoplasms were of viral aetiology.
A buffalo (Syncerus caffer) was inoculated intravenously and intradermally with a high dose of Allerton-type herpes virus isolated from a sick buffalo during an outbreak of a disease in buffaloes in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in 1969. The animal reacted severely and generalized skin nodules as well as oral and nasal lesions were observed. Viraemia was detected and the virus was isolated from swabs and also from ticks which were fed on the animal during the viraemic phase. The buffalo produced neutralizing antibody and recovered after a long illness. It would therefore appear that under certain conditions the Allerton-type herpes virus can be of high pathogenicity for buffaloes.
Juvenile osteomalacia was diagnosed in a 1-month-old coyote puppy (Canis latrans incolatus) reared on an artificial diet. Hematologic and radiographic findings during the course of the disease are presented. A successful treatment regime consisting of administration of parenteral and oral calcium and supportive treatment is outlined.
Adult mallard drakes were exposed for approximately 14 weeks to distributions of 17.8, 89.0, and 178 g of particulate lead per m2 in simulted-marsh areas. The ante-mortem and post-mortem findings indicated that exposures of 17.8 g of particulate lead per m2 had a low toxicity for the experimental birds. The birds exposed to 89.0 g/m2 experienced a 57% mortality within an average of 72.5 days; all had positive fluorescent erythrocyte tests; and post-mortem examinations showed evidence of chronic lead toxicosis. The birds exposed to 178 g/m2 showed overt signs of lead poisoning; they experienced 100% mortality within an average of 22.5 days; and post-mortem examinations showed evidence of subacute lead toxicosis. It was concluded that distributions of disintegrated lead shot (i.e. particulate lead) in waterfowl wetlands could probably exceed existing distributions of commercial lead shot in heavily hunted areas by ten fold without presenting a significant toxicity to waterfowl.
Employing skin biopsies fixed in various ways, received in response to a questionnaire survey, sealpox was confirmed by light and electron microscopic examination in five captive California sea lions, Zalophus califomianus, one free-living harbor seal Phoca vitulina and one South American sea lion, Otaria byronia.
A nodular skin condition of unknown etiology is common among captive California sea lions, captive Stellar sea lions and captive elephant seals. A probable source of sealpox in aquaria and zoological gardens is infected animals captured in the wild.
The light microscopic demonstration of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells and the electron microscopic demonstration of poxvirus in these inclusions has shown that sealpox occurs in free-living California sea lions, Zalophus calijornianus. This is the first evidence of a poxvirus skin infection in free-living California sea lions.
A naturally occurring case of pox infection was identified in a Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Prince George area of British Columbia. Gross and microscopic findings are described. This is apparently the first record of pox infection in the Golden Eagle.
An implement is described which facilitates endoparasite studies involving white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This device significantly reduces the time required for helminth parasite collections from the small intestines of these animals and appears to have similar potential for other species. It also increases the efficiency with which abdominal worms (Setaria yehi) and blood flukes (Heterobilharzia americana) can be found.
Nematodes of the genus Serratospiculum are common and usually innocuous inhabitants of the air sacs of several species of falcons. However, the abdominal and thoracic air sacs of a prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus) that died in respiratory distress were filled with hundreds of adult parasites. Illnesses in a peregrine (Falco peregrinus tundrius) and another prairie falcon, tentatively diagnosed as serratospiculiasis, were successfully treated with thiabendazole given orally. Embryonated ova were found in the feces of 8 of 73 falcons representing five species.
Twenty-six species of fauna were examined for the presence of antibodies in their sera. Reactors were found against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (2/74 fallow deer and 3/27 forest ravens), Leptospira pomona (3/5 wombats and 1/2 Gunn's bandicoots), Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae (2/13 Norway rats), Leptospira hyos (3/6 potoroos and 1/19 hares), Leptospira grippotyphosa (1/127 fallow deer), Q. fever (1/1 Bennett's wallaby), psittacosis - lymphogranuloma group (1/1 giant petrel and 1/18 short-tailed shearwaters), mucosal disease (2/44 Bennett's wallaby and 11/76 fallow deer), infectious bronchitis (1/84 short-tailed shearwaters), and Toxoplasma gondii (3/7 pademelons and 12/69 rabbits).
An epizootic of trichomoniasis in mourning doves at the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge began in 1969 and continued into 1970. The disease was seen in 16% of the adults and 2% of the immatures in 1970, but only one immature bird out of 37 surveyed (3%) carried Trichomonas gallinae. Challenge infection of 33 doves from the epizootic area showed 85 percent to be resistant to trichomoniasis, compared to 69 percent resistance in doves from Maryland, where no epizootic has occurred for at least 3 years.
Plasma protein changes which occurred following challenge infection were identical in CSNWR and Maryland doves which showed evidence of disease. Of the doves which showed no signs of disease, those from the CSNWR exhibited no change in beta globulins, identical to the response in pigeons which survive an infection by T. gallinae, but they had some tissue invasion by the parasite.
Samples of 3 species of recently captured turtles from the southeastern U.S.A., the peninsula cooter, pond slider, and box turtle, were examined to determine base line values for blood serum cholesterel. Means with standard errors, ranges, and coefficients of variation of this blood parameter were calculated for each species.
Means (± SD) of serum electrolytes sampled from 21–32 male and 32–65 female Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) 18 months and older collected yearlong were: sodium, 148.5 ± 19.0 and 148.8 ± 17.8 meq/liter; potassium, 8.88 ±2.12 and 8.74 ±2.13 meq/liter; calcium, 6.44 ± 1.58 and 6.13 ±1.31 meq/liter; magnesium, 3.11 ± 0.95 and 3.34 ±1.14 meq/liter; and inorganic phosphorus, 7.27 ± 1.03 and 7.82 ± 2.70 mg/100 cc, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) between-sex differences were limited to higher mean calcium values in 6-11 month old females. Significant age class differences occurred only in mean potassium and inorganic phosphorus among males and mean calcium among females wherein younger deer had the larger values. Significantly larger seasonal means occurred in potassium of mature females during the spring and summer and in inorganic phosphorus of mature females during the summer. Over a three-year period of decreasing precipitation and browse yields, annual means of sodium and calcium increased in mature deer of both sexes but decreased for inorganic phosphorus in mature females.
Necrosis of skeletal muscles was found in a pademelon (Thylogale billardierii) and two Bennett's wailabies (Macropus rufogrisea). The possible involvement of over-exertion in precipitating the condition is discussed.