Deer were introduced to Australia in the 19th century, and today 6 species have been established in the wild. Australians have considered deer a pest and an important economic and hunting resource since their early introduction. We recommend promoting the management of wild deer for the joint outcomes of reducing adverse impacts on agriculture, forestry, and conservation values, and for exploitation and harvest. We also recommend that managers recognize deer as an established component of many Australian ecosystems. If Australians are to have a professional approach to wildlife management, we must move away from the traditional paradigms of protection of native species and eradication of exotic species and embrace wildlife management for all its complexities, challenges, and positive outcomes. We discuss wild deer management as a test case to explore these issues.
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Vol. 69 • No. 3