We examined the effect of harvesting intensity and pattern on red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), and yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) in mature inland Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca) forests in south-central British Columbia, Canada. We sampled squirrels 1 year before harvesting through 4 years after harvesting and estimated population parameters using open-population models. Relative to unharvested stands, each of the 3 species showed a strong response to tree removal. From 2 years to 4 years after logging, red squirrel density was 40% (SE = 7.1) lower in stands with 50% basal-area tree removal. From 1 year and up to 4 years after logging, northern flying squirrel density averaged 60% (SE = 5.2) lower in harvested treatments regardless of intensity or pattern of logging. In contrast, density of yellow-pine chipmunks increased markedly with increased logging intensity. Beginning 3 years after logging, yellow-pine chipmunk density was 734% (SE = 269) greater in stands with 50% basal-area tree removal. In the short term, harvesting intensity was a more important determinant of squirrel density than harvesting pattern. Retaining >10 m2 per ha of live residual stand structure in mature inland Douglas-fir forests maintained habitat for forest-dependent species such as red squirrels and northern flying squirrels, albeit at lower densities.
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Vol. 71 • No. 8