Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer–fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills were infrequent, and each reduced marten adult annual survival <10%. Annual adult survival was similar to or higher than survival in other areas, suggesting that it was not unusually low and therefore did not limit recovery of marten populations in northern Wisconsin. We captured few juvenile martens, suggesting low reproduction or reduced juvenile survival.
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