Adenoviral infection was associated with hemorrhagic enteritis, serosal hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary edema in six captive moose (Alces alces) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada: an adult female moose and three calves in 1985 and two calves in 1998. Adenoviral disease was suspected based on histological findings of systemic vasculitis and widespread thrombosis associated with amphophilic intranuclear inclusions in endothelial cells. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using antiserum to bovine adenovirus type 5, transmission electron microscopic identification of viral particles consistent in morphology with adenovirus within nuclei of pulmonary endothelial cells in an affected calf, and virus isolation. The restriction pattern of virus isolated from the lung of one of the calves indicated that the virus was identical to a recently characterized adenovirus in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California. The moose adenovirus reported here may have been endemic in the captive moose herd, or infection may have resulted from either direct or indirect contact with other species of captive or wild cervids. This is the first report of adenoviral infection in moose and of the presence of adenoviral disease in a cervid in Canada.
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Vol. 33 • No. 1