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1 June 2004 COMPARISON OF AMIKACIN PHARMACOKINETICS IN A KILLER WHALE (ORCINUS ORCA) AND A BELUGA WHALE (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS)
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Abstract
Amikacin, an aminoglycoside antimicrobial, was administered to a killer whale (Orcinus orca) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) for the treatment of clinical signs consistent with gram-negative aerobic bacterial infections. Dosage regimens were designed to target a maximal plasma concentration 8–10 times the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the pathogen and to reduce the risk of aminoglycoside toxicity. Allometric analysis of published pharmacokinetic parameters in mature animals yielded a relationship for amikacin's volume of distribution, in milliliters, given by the equation Vd = 151.058(BW)1.043. An initial dose for amikacin was estimated by calculating the volume of distribution and targeted maximal concentration. With this information, dosage regimens for i.m. administration were designed for a killer whale and a beluga whale. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed on each whale to assess the individual pharmacokinetic parameters. The elimination half-life (5.99 hr), volume of distribution per bioavailability (319 ml/kg), and clearance per bioavailability (0.61 ml/min/kg) were calculated for the killer whale. The elimination half-life (5.03 hr), volume of distribution per bioavailability (229 ml/kg), and clearance per bioavailability (0.53 ml/ min/kg) were calculated for the beluga whale. The volume of distribution predicted from the allometric equation for both whales was similar to the calculated pharmacokinetic parameter. Both whales exhibited a prolonged elimination half-life and decreased clearance when compared with other animal species despite normal renal parameters on biochemistry panels. Allometric principles and therapeutic drug monitoring were used to accurately determine the doses in these cases and to avoid toxicity.
Butch KuKanich, MARK PAPICH, David Huff and Michael Stoskopf "COMPARISON OF AMIKACIN PHARMACOKINETICS IN A KILLER WHALE (ORCINUS ORCA) AND A BELUGA WHALE (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(2), (1 June 2004). https://doi.org/10.1638/03-078
Received: 27 August 2003; Accepted: ; Published: 1 June 2004
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